Chapter 1: Introductions. M. A. Farjoo. Table of Contents. Background Applications Manufacturing Technologies. Background.
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M. A. Farjoo
Composite materials (or composites for short) are engineered materials made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and which remain separate and distinct on a macroscopic level within the finished structure. (Wikipedia)
Constructed in 20 hectares, More than 1400 years ago.
The most primitive composite materials comprised straw and mud in the form of bricks for building construction
There are two categories of constituent materials: matrix and reinforcement. The matrix material surrounds and supports the reinforcement materials by maintaining their relative positions. The reinforcements impart their special mechanical and physical properties to enhance the matrix properties.
The most famous composite is called fiberglass which is made of glass fibers as the reinforcement and polyester (or epoxy) resin as the matrix.
Most industries have a connection with composite materials.
Due to high strength and light weight of composite materials, aerospace industries use composite materials. Carbon fibers and fiberglass are used in Aerospace industries.
Leading edge of the wings, vertical and horizontal tails, compressed air tanks, nose cone, fuselage, etc. are made of composite materials.
Full composite glider
Composite nose cone
Composite sandwich panel wing
Full composite high speed boat
Duse to high durability of composite materials in water and wet climate, most boats and yachts are made by composite materials.
Automobile industry uses several kind of composite parts.
Sport cars employ composites to reduce the weight.
Most sport equipment are sued by fiberglass.
Ski and ski pole are made by composite materials.
Civil Engineers are familiar with composite materials. They use composites to reinforce the structure against seismic loads.
Renovation by fiberglass
Reinforcement of Building by composite materials
Wind turbines are made composite materials. Some of their blades have 100 m length.
As a general rule, when one needs light structure with high strength, composite materials are the best choice.
Some part of the body of high speed trains are made by composites. Further more the interiors are made by composites.
High speed Japan train
Monorail Interior, Malaysia
Monorail body, Malaysia
Also other thousands of applications can be found if one search “composite” or “Fiberglass” in internet!!
Resin Transfer Molding (RTM)
Sheet Molding Compound (SMC)
Bulk Molding Compound (BMC)