SYNTAX Lecture -1. SMRITI SINGH. Syntax. A term for the study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences in a language. In this use, syntax is opposed to Morphology, the study of word structure. or
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
In ‘Foundations of the Theory of Signs 1938’ by C.W.
Morris, Syntax is defined within the study of signs as
one of its three subfields –
Syntax - the study of the interrelation of the signs.
Semantics - the study of the relation between the signs
and the objects to which they apply.
Pragmatics - the relationship between the sign system
and the user.
It is the study of free forms that are composed
entirely of free forms.
Central notions of his theory-
‘Walk’, ‘come’, ‘run’, ‘jump’ - belong to the form-class of infinitive expressions.
‘John’, ‘the boys’, ‘Mr. Smith’ – belong to the form-class of nominative substantive expressions.
In a sentence like – “John went to the Church”,
‘John’ can be substituted with ‘children’, ‘Mr. Smith’ or ‘the boys’ (as these are syntactically equivalent to each other and display identical grammatical features).
(e.g. a NounPhrase might consist of a determiner and a noun), and
in a construction ‘poor John,’ ‘poor’ and ‘John’ are immediate constituents.
In ‘poor John’ –
Similarly, in ‘lost his watch’ –
In ‘lost his watch’ –
‘lost his watch’.
The constituent structure of the whole sentence can
be represented by means of labeled bracketing e.g.
[ [ [Poor] [John] ] [ [lost] [ [his] [watch] ]]
Or using a tree diagram for the same -
[ [ [Poor]ADJ [John]N ]NP [ [lost]V [ [his]PRON [watch ]N ]NP ]VP ]S
ADJ N V NP
Poor John lost his watch
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1965)
Analyze the following constructions using Labeled
Bracketing as well as tree Diagram: