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The Nation Breaking Apart. Growing Tensions Between North and South. Missouri Compromise 1820. Author: Henry Clay Missouri would be admitted as a Slave State. Maine would be admitted as a Free State.

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the nation breaking apart

The Nation Breaking Apart

Growing Tensions Between North and South

missouri compromise 1820
Missouri Compromise1820
  • Author: Henry Clay
  • Missouri would be admitted as a Slave State.
  • Maine would be admitted as a Free State.
  • All territory in the Louisiana Territory above the 36, 30 Latitude Line, slavery would be outlawed.
wilmot proviso 1846
Wilmot Proviso1846

David Wilmot, House of Representatives


  • Outlaw slavery in any territory won from Mexico.
  • South: Bill was unconstitutional, congress had no right to stop them from bring their property into the new territories. Constitution protected their property rights.
  • House: Passed
  • Senate: Failed
wilmot proviso 18461
Wilmot Proviso1846
  • Results:
    • Creation of the Free Soil Party.
    • Dedicated to to stopping the spread of slavery.
    • “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men”.
    • Made slavery a key issue in politics from that point on.
the compromise of 1850 author henry clay
The Compromise of 1850Author: Henry Clay



  • California: Free State
  • Slave trade would be abolished in Washington D.C.
  • Congress would not pass anymore laws about slavery in the territories won from Mexico.
  • Congress would pass a stronger Fugitive Slave Law.
the fugitive slave act
The Fugitive Slave Act
  • People accused of being escaped slaves could be arrested at any time.
  • No right to a jury trial.
  • Required Northerners to help recapture runaway slaves.
  • Created the Federal Marshalls.
  • Judge would decide their fate.
    • $5 for releasing the person.
    • $10 for turning the person over the slaveholder.
the kansas nebraska act 1854
The Kansas-Nebraska Act1854
  • Author: Stephen Douglas, Senator (Illinois )
  • Organize the governments for the Nebraska Territory.
  • Divided into the Kansas and Nebraska Territories.
the kansas nebraska act 18541
The Kansas-Nebraska Act1854
  • The issue of slavery would be decided by Popular Sovereignty.
  • Popular Sovereignty:
  • The People Decide!!!!
bleeding kansas
Bleeding Kansas
  • Kansas Territory would be the first place Popular Soverneigty would be put to the test.
  • Both Proslavery and Antislavery people rushed into Kansas.
  • Election would held in March of 1855.
  • More Proslavery people were in Kansas at the time of the election.
bleeding kansas1
Bleeding Kansas
  • Border Ruffians: 5,000 Missourians crossed the boarder and voted .
  • Kansas Territory became a slave territory. Capital was in Topecca.
  • Antislavery people called the election fixed and formed their own government. Capital was in Lawrence.
bleeding kansas2
Bleeding Kansas
  • May, 1855: Sack of Lawrence
    • Mob attacks Lawrence
    • Destroys offices and the Govener’s home
    • John Brown: Extreme Abolitionist
bleeding kansas3
Bleeding Kansas
  • Pottawatomie Massacre:
    • John Brown and seven others attack Pottawatomie Creek.
    • Five Proslavery men were killed.
    • Civil war broke out in Kansas that lasted for three years.
    • Became known as “Bleeding Kansas”
the dred scott case
The Dred Scott Case
  • Dred Scott: Slave of a Military Doctor from Missouri.
  • Owner took him into Wisconsin & Minnisota territories, which are both free territories.
  • After the death of the doctor, Aboloitionists talked Dred Scott into sueing for his freedom.
the dred scott case1
The Dred Scott Case
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford: Reached the Supreme Court in 1857.
  • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney delivered the courts ruling.
the dred scott case2
The Dred Scott Case
  • Dred Scott was not a citizen.
  • (Slaves were Property/U.S. Constitution)
  • As a result, he could not sue in U.S. Courts.
  • Scott’s time in the free territories did not matter in his case, because he had to abide by Missouri’s slave codes.
the dred scott case3
The Dred Scott Case
  • Congress could not ban slavery in the territories.
  • To do so would violate the 5th Amendment.

(Property Rights)

Declared the Missouri Compromise Unconstitutional.

lincoln douglas debates
Lincoln—Douglas Debates
  • The Republican Party grew out of the problems caused by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
  • No room for comprimise on the expansion of slavery.
  • The violance in Kansas was the Democrats (Southern slave holders) fault.
  • Republicans quickly gained support in the Northern states.
lincoln douglas debates1
Lincoln—Douglas Debates
  • After the Supreme Court made it’s ruling on the Dred Scott Case, the Republicans charged that the Democrats wanted to legalize slavery everywhere.
  • Illinois: Senate Seat
    • Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln
    • Democrats renominate Stephen Douglas
lincoln douglas debates a house divided against itself cannot stand
Lincoln—Douglas Debates“A House Divided Against Itself Cannot Stand”
  • Stephen Douglas
    • Author Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • Popular Sovereignty
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Little known Laywer
  • Southerns wanted to expand slavery everywhere
lincoln douglas debates2
Lincoln—Douglas Debates
  • The two men debated all over Illinois (7 times).
  • Lincoln:
    • Slavery was “a moral, a social and a political wrong.”
    • It should be stopped from spreading, but not to abolish it completely.
lincoln douglas debates3
Lincoln—Douglas Debates
  • Douglas:
    • Popular Sovereignty was most the democratic method to use.
    • Dred Scott case made Popular Sovereignty unconstitutional.
    • “The people have the lawful means to introduce or exclude it as they please.”
    • Douglas won relection.
harpers ferry
Harpers Ferry
  • Federal Arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
  • John Brown and 18 men, 13 whites & 5 blacks.
  • Captue the arsenal and use the arms to rally the local slaves to join him to start a rebellion.
  • October 16, 1859 attack took place and they were able to capture the arsenal.
harpers ferry1
Harpers Ferry
  • No slaves came to join him and his gang.
  • They were surounded by Federal troops led by Robert E. Lee.
  • When the fight was over, 10 had been killed and Brown and six of his men had been captured.
harpers ferry2
Harpers Ferry
  • Results:
    • John Brown was put on trial for Murder and Treason.
    • Found guilty and sentenced to hanged.
    • North: On the day he was to be Hanged. Abolitionists rang church bells and fired guns in his honor.
    • South: The people were horrified by his actions and were in disbelief by the reactions in the North.