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Canadian History XI. Start of WWII, why Canada entered the war? Contributions. Start of WWII. Because of widespread unrest, the period between WWI and WWII has often been called the “long armistice”. Blitzkrieg. German new method of fighting was the blitzkrieg (lightning war).

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Canadian History XI

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Canadian history xi

Canadian History XI

Start of WWII, why Canada entered the war? Contributions


Start of wwii

Start of WWII

  • Because of widespread unrest, the period between WWI and WWII has often been called the “long armistice”


Blitzkrieg

Blitzkrieg

  • German new method of fighting was the blitzkrieg (lightning war).

    • It was a sudden, swift, overpowering attack that used airplanes to bomb cities and to machine gun soldiers and civilians.

  • Blitzkrieg tactics made Germany successful because they caught other nations off guard .

  • Within a week, they conquered Poland.

    • Poland was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union.

  • Hitler’s army advances on Denmark (1 day), Norway (2 days), the Netherlands (5 days), Belgium (18 days), and Luxembourg.


Clip on the blitzkrieg

Clip on the Blitzkrieg


Germany defeats france

Germany Defeats France

  • 1930-34 France was building the Maginot Line in the eastern border.

    • France’s line of defense

  • Germany bypassed the Maginot Line from the north while Italy invaded southern France.

  • Nazi forces would occupy most of France

    • Germany controlled France’s resources and factories

  • Some French leaders left for England and created “Free French” government.

  • After this Canada became Britain’s main ally.


Entering the war

Entering the War

  • Canada entered the war in September 10th 1939

  • Seven days after Britain and France declared war on Germany

  • So why do you think Canada entered WWII?


Alliances

Alliances

  • Two blocks: the Axis and the Allies.

  • The three major Axis powers were, Germany, Italy, and Japan.

  • Among the Allied powers, the "Big Three" were the United Kingdom, from September 1939, the Soviet Union, from June 1941, and the United States, from December 1941.

  • The British Commonwealth, Poland, France, Belgium, China, Norway, and the Netherlands were also counted to the Allied.


Home front

Home Front

  • By 1945, Canada had become one of the world’s foremost industrial nations.

  • Government sold Victory Bonds and increased income taxes to help pay for the war.

  • These paid for 2/3rd of the cost of the war.


Home front1

Home Front

  • Canadian government avoided inflation by, controlling wage and price controls

    • (government restrictions placed on wages paid to workers and prices charged for goods and services.)

  • They were given rations books.

  • Children collected paper, metal, rags, rubber and bones. All these things could be recycled into war materials.

    • Gasoline and food was rationed.

    • The use of metal and rubber was restricted.

  • They had contests to see who could make the biggest ball out of aluminum foil.

  • Women made up the workforce.


Home front women

Home Front: Women

  • Women in War

    • Nurses,

    • flying airplanes,

    • driving vehicles,

    • running communication equipment and performing administrative support work

  • Women were recruited for all branches (45000 enlist)


Women during wwii

Women during WWII

Women were increasingly occupying more and more jobs that were traditionally done by men.

Social change

Jobs that women occupied:

In the home

In the field (maintaining crop and livestock)

Factories

Producing aircraft

Ammunition

Weapons

Women worked long hours and could earn as much as 40 shillings (£2.00) a week.

Good wage in the 1940s

Less than male wages for the same job.


Canadian enlistment

Canadian Enlistment


Diversity in the war

Diversity in the War

Canadian Battalions were no longer segregated during WWII.

Natives had to get permission of the Dept. of Indian Affairs, as they were not citizens.

They had to give up their status as registered Indians


Canadian services army navy air force

Canadian Services: Army, Navy & Air force

  • Three Canadian Services:

    • The Army

    • The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN)

    • The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF)

  • In 1939 Canada’s navy, and air force was the 4th largest in the world.


Canadian navy and merchant marine

Canadian Navy and Merchant Marine

  • Naval Service of Canada founded in 1910

    • It was given royal sanction in 1911.

    • RCN was placed under the Department of National Defense in 1923.

  • During WWII the RCN had 11 combat vessels, 145 officers and 1,674 men.

    • From there the RCN expanded significantly

    • Gained responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic

  • By the end of the war, the RCN had become the 4th largest allied navy in the world.


Canadian air force

Canadian Air Force

  • The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan Agreement, October 10, 1939

  • RCAF Training Plan – trained men throughout the Commonwealth

    • (200 sites across Canada)

  • Canada "airdrome of democracy."

  • Significance of BCATP: furnished air training fields, uniform system of training and laid the basis for the pooling of Commonwealth air power.

  • The Lancaster Bomber was the largest four-engine plane flown by the RCAF.

    • During the war 7,374 were made and many of them in Canada.


Propaganda

Propaganda

  • Since Canada was physically and psychologically unprepared for WWII

  • Inadequate military preparations were matched by a psychological reticence.

  • Aware of the situation in Europe, Canadians hoped that the crisis could be averted.

  • How could the Canadian Government gain the support of the it people for WWII?


Propaganda1

Propaganda

Wartime Information Board (WIB), undertook an extensive propaganda campaign "to dampen cynicism" to gain support.

Posters were an essential element in this program, because they were relatively inexpensive to produce; they could be created, printed and distributed quickly ; and they had sustained exposure.


Analysis of the propaganda tactics

Analysis of the Propaganda Tactics

  • Poster artists stated that, successful posters made this shorthand graphic through "vigorous composition, eloquent color, an unambiguous theme [and] impassioned execution," and in that way they communicated complex, highly emotional messages "in the blink of an eye."

  • The powerful messages they transmitted tend to be instantly internalized rather than analyzed. Because of this, the posters had a strikingly immediate impact on people‘s values, attitudes and aspirations.


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