The NERVOUS SYSTEM. Central & Peripheral Nervous System.
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Central & Peripheral
You at a friend’s backyard party when her uncle starts to stumble, and complain of dizziness and tiredness. He is also having difficulty breathing. He mentions that he was spraying for insects in the front yard and may have breathed in too much spray. He sits and relaxes, but does not feel any better after 15 min. His blue complexion provides a good signal that you should take him to the hospital. On the way to the hospital, his muscles go from tense to limp. The emergency-room physician finds out that your friend’s uncle had a busy day before the party.
He was involved in cleaning algae out of the large pond behind the house before spraying the yard. He ate some old beef stew that was in the refrigerator, but claims it didn’t look or smell bad. Your friend is concerned about her uncle and asks you to explain what the physicians are looking for as the cause to her uncle’s illness.
You explain that the physicians must use a process of elimination to determine what caused her uncle’s problems.
CSI #9 – Structure of the Nervous System
You just heard that a former professional football player living in your neighborhood was taken to the police station after a disturbance at a local grocery store. You find out that he was wandering around the store aimlessly and making aggressive comments as if he were drunk. A friend then calls to tell you that the football player was admitted to the hospital because he started having seizures. Later in the week, some neighbors tell you that the football player was showing signs of weakness and often acted confused during conversation. There were also some concerns mentioned about his excessive alcohol consumption and weight gain. Your friend asks you what might be wrong with the 50 year old former athlete.
Determine the possible nervous system problems causing the illness.
FUNCTIONS of the NERVOUS SYSTEM
2 TYPES OF CELLS within the NERVOUS SYSTEM
(membrane that surrounds the entire nerve)
(bundle of axons)
(membrane that surrounds each axon)
(membrane that surrounds each fascicle)
TO the cell body)
STRUCTURE of a NEURON
cell body (contains nucleus)
axon (transmit impulses AWAY from the cell body)
direction of nerve impulse
(white fatty substance that protects the axon)
(cells that produce myelin;
Axons in the brain/spinal cord lack a neurilemma so regeneration is much less than it is in the PNS.
(space btwn neurons
were impulses are transmitted)
Conduction of Impulses
It takes 0.001 seconds to reset a neuron; can carry 1000 impulses/sec.
Action Potential Animation:
a. conduction along unmyelinated
b. conduction along myelinated fibers
Myelin and Multiple Sclerosis
Have 2 different effects…
1) Excitatory: a stimulus that encourages an A.P.
2) Inhibitory: a stimulus that discourages an A.P.
4-stage process when communicating with neurotransmitters:
Major Neurotransmitters in the Body
Effects of Alcohol on the Brain
Clear your Minds
Spatial Summnation works because you have both inhibitory and excitatory neurons working against each other
Threshold Stimulus – the minimal stimulus required
to evoke a response
B - 50 imp
C -10 imp
D + 30 imp
A +50 imp
A by itself = no transmission
A+D = transmission
A + B + D = no transmission
E + 30 imp
Threshold = 80 impulses / sec
Concept Check #1
2. How do the sensory and motor neuron function in the NS differ?
3. We know that the blood brain barrier separates the blood and nervous tissue but why is this important?
Concept Check #2
5. What is believed to be the cause of myelin
destruction in the auto-immune disease multiple sclerosis?
6. How do pre & post synaptic neurons differ?
7. Explain the direction in which nerve impulses
travel? (use the terms axon, dendrite, pre & post synaptic neurons)
8. What is a nerve? What are the 3 layers of a nerve
and how do they differ?
Concept Check #3
9. What are neurotransmitters and how do they
11. What is an action potential? Finish the diagram
below. ++++ -+++
- - - - + - - -
12. Explain how your brain can receive tons of
information but you only reacte or realize some of
them? (be sure to use threshold stimulus and inhibitory impulses in your answer)
The diencephalon (hypothalamus / thalamus)
heartbeat, temp., peristalsis, appetite, sexual arousal; vol. of urine &H2O
sensations, and emotions
4 Major Lobes of the Human Brain
Parts of the Cerebrum
(surface of cerebrum)
(ridges of cortex))
(grooves of cortex)
of the brain
that separates the
brain into 2
LEFT BRAIN FUNCTIONSuses logicdetail orientedfacts rulewords and languagepresent and pastmath and sciencecan comprehendknowingacknowledgesorder/pattern perceptionknows object namereality basedforms strategiespracticalsafe
RIGHT BRAIN FUNCTIONSuses feeling"big picture" orientedimagination rulessymbols and imagespresent and futurephilosophy & religioncan "get it" (i.e. meaning)believesappreciatesspatial perceptionknows object functionfantasy basedpresents possibilitiesimpetuousrisk taking
Left Brain vs. Right Brain
Left vs. Right Hemisphere Damage
(analyzing spoken language; comprehension)
Aphasia disorder – loss of ability to speak; caused by stroke / injury or tumor / infection
Split Brain Experiments
Mr. Split Brainy
12 PAIRS of CRANIAL NERVES
Concept Check #4
13.What is the protective covering of the brain and
spinal cord? What 3 layers make this covering up?
14. What is the brainstem responsible for and what
are its 3 parts?
15. What is the 2nd largest part of the brain and what
is it responsible for?
16. What is the largest part of the brain and what are
each of its lobes responsible for?
Concept Check #5
17.The ___________ separates the 2 hemispheres but they
connect at the ___________________.
18. How do hemorrhages and strokes differ?
19. What do each of the following cranial nerves control:
Optic? Olfactory? Glossopharyngeal? Vestibulocochlear??
Nervous System CSI #8 Questions….
1. Pesticides can affect the nervous system.
A) Explain how.
B) What symptoms did the uncle have that could indicate pesticides as the cause for his hospitalization).
2. Food-poisoning can affect the nervous system.
A) Explain how.
B) What symptoms did the uncle have that could indicate Botulism as the cause for his hospitalization).
3. Handling blue-algae can affect the nervous system.
A) Explain how.
B) What symptoms did the uncle have that could indicate blue-algae as the cause for his hospitalization).
Nervous System CSI #9 Questions….
or Alzheimer’s disease because of his symptoms, he is actually
suffering from something else. What neurovascular condition is he
suffering from? Explain what this condition is.
3. What causes this condition? And, what was the football player
doing to aggravate his condition?
4. What can be done, if anything, to cure or reverse this condition?