Effects of solar activity, co-rotating
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 18

Stan Solomon and Liying Qian High Altitude Observatory National Center for Atmospheric Research PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 64 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Effects of solar activity, co-rotating interaction regions, and climate change on thermospheric density during the solar cycle 23/24 minimum. Stan Solomon and Liying Qian High Altitude Observatory National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Download Presentation

Stan Solomon and Liying Qian High Altitude Observatory National Center for Atmospheric Research

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Stan solomon and liying qian high altitude observatory national center for atmospheric research

Effects of solar activity, co-rotatinginteraction regions, and climate changeon thermospheric densityduring the solar cycle 23/24 minimum

Stan Solomon and Liying Qian

High Altitude Observatory

National Center for Atmospheric Research

NADIR Meeting • Boulder, Colorado • 26 October 2011


Long term satellite drag data

Long-Term Satellite Drag Data

Global average neutral density at 400 km, 81-day average and annual average (top), and superposed epoch analysis (bottom)

Emmert et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12102, 2010


Thermospheric density and f 10 7 at solar minimum

Thermospheric Density and F10.7 at Solar Minimum

-30%

-4%

Global average neutral density at 400 km, 81-day average and annual average (top), F10.7 Solar Activity Index (bottom)

Emmert et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L12102


Thermospheric response to changes in co 2

Thermospheric Response to Changes in CO2

Range of CO2 values during past 40 years


Solar euv measurements from soho solar euv monitor

Solar EUV Measurements from SOHO Solar EUV Monitor

• The Solar EUV Monitor (SEM) on the SOHO spacecraft indicates 15% less irradiance in 2008 than in 1996 in the 26-34 nm wavelength band. Quoted uncertainty is 6%.

Didkovsky et al., SOHO-23 Workshop Proceedings, 2010

• LASP rocket and TIMED SEE results are consistent with the SEM measurements

Uncertainty of ~20%


First attempt to model thermospheric density

First Attempt to Model Thermospheric Density

  • Solomon et al. (2010), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L16103, doi:10.1029/2010GL044468.

  • Preliminary modeling work found reasonable agreement between solar EUV and density measurements. However, questions remain:

    • — Possible degradation of solar measurement?

    • — Role of global thermospheric cooling due to increasing CO2 levels?

    • — Role of low geomagnetic activity?

Global annual average neutral density at 400 km plotted against annual average Solar EUV 26-34 nm from SOHO/SEM for the ascending (red) and descending (blue) phases of SC 23


Comparison of f 10 7 index to mg ii core to wing ratio

Comparison of F10.7 Index to Mg II Core-to-Wing Ratio

MgII data analysis courtesy of Rodney Viereck, NOAA/SWPC


Solar euv calculations using the mg ii core to wing ratio

Solar EUV Calculations using the Mg II Core-to-Wing Ratio

EUV 10% lower using MgII c/w


Second attempt to model thermospheric density

Second Attempt to Model Thermospheric Density

Solomon et al. (2011), J. Geophys Res., 116, in press, doi:10.1029/2011JA016508.

NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model

Temperature and Density simulations at 400 km

2008 simulation includes combined effects of solar EUV decrease,

CO2 increase, and geomagnetic activity changes


Global mean density at 400 km during 1996 and 2008

Global Mean Density at 400 km during 1996 and 2008


Comparison of model runs to champ data for 2008

Comparison of Model Runs to CHAMP Data for 2008


Comparison of model runs to champ data for cr 2068

Comparison of Model Runs to CHAMP Data for CR 2068


Model calculations of altitude profiles

Model Calculations of Altitude Profiles

Measured Density Change [Emmert et al., 2010]


Summary of model results

Summary of Model Results

Annual average global mean density at 400 km

Using MgII c/w to calculate solar EUV and FUV

Percentage differences from 1996 to 2008


What about the ionosphere

What about the Ionosphere?

TIE-GCM simulations using MgII predict 14% average reduction of NmF2


Do ionospheric observations find this modeled decrease

Do Ionospheric Observations Find This Modeled Decrease?

Heelis et al., 2009: CINDI measurements indicate that ionosphere is lower and cooler than IRI empirical model during summer 2008.

Lühr and Xiong, 2010: CHAMP and GRACE measurements indicate lower ionospheric densities than IRI and other models.

Coley et al., 2010: Extended the analysis of Heelis et al.

Chen et al., 2011: Long-term ionosonde data set shows lower NmF2 levels during 2008-2009 than previous solar minima.

Liu et al., 2011: Extended the analysis of Chen et al.

Araujo-Pradere et al., 2011: Analyzed ionosonde and total electron content (TEC) measurements, finding mixed results, depending on location, time of year, and especially time of day.

BUT...

Global average total electron content data sets derived from multi-point GPS measurements do not show this decline...


Conclusions

Conclusions

• The thermosphere/ionosphere system was cooler, less dense, and lower, during the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 than during a “typical” solar minimum.

• The primary cause of this was lower than “usual” solar EUV irradiance.

• The Mg II core-to-wing ratio variations are consistent with these observations.

• Secular change due to increasing CO2 makes a small but significant contribution.

• Lower geomagnetic activity during 2008-2009 also makes a small but significant contribution.

• Solomon, S. C., L. Qian, L. V. Didkovsky, R. A. Viereck, and T. N. Woods (2011), Causes of low thermospheric density during the 2007–2009 solar minimum, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H07, doi:10.1029/2011JA016508.

• Work in progress extends this modeling effort to possible ionospheric changes.


  • Login