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Chapter 21. Prokaryotes & Viruses. Taxonomy. Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Cetacea Family Delphinidae Genus Tursiops Species truncatus Bottlenose dolphin. Domains. Eubacteria (Bacteria) Archaebacteria (Archaea) Eukarya

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chapter 21

Chapter 21

Prokaryotes & Viruses

taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Domain Eukarya
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Cetacea
  • Family Delphinidae
  • Genus Tursiops
  • Species truncatus
  • Bottlenose dolphin
domains
Domains
  • Eubacteria (Bacteria)
  • Archaebacteria (Archaea)
  • Eukarya
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Plantae
    • Kingdom Animalia
prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotes—simplest, most “primitive”
    • bacteria
  • Eukaryotes— “true” cells, more “advanced”
    • Complex organisms, multicelled
prokaryotes
Prokaryotes
  • No membrane around nucleus
  • No true organelles
  • Single chromosome (nucleoid)
    • May have plasmids
  • Cell wall (most)
  • Reproduce by prokaryotic fission
bacterial shapes
Bacterial Shapes
  • Coccus (cocci)—spherical
  • Bacillus (bacilli)—rod
  • Sprillum (spirilla)—spiral, twist
bacterial structures
Bacterial Structures
  • Cell wall
    • Peptidoglycan (polysaccharide)
    • Maintain shape
    • ID species
      • Gram-positive—thick wall
        • Stain purple
      • Gram-negative—thin wall
        • Stain pink
bacterial structures1
Bacterial Structures
  • Glycocalyx—capsule or slime layer
    • Attach to structures (teeth, intestine, rocks, etc.)
    • Protection
  • Pili—thin, hair-like proteins
    • Adhere to surfaces
    • Adhere to other baceria
  • Flagellum
    • Movement
metabolism
Metabolism
  • Photoautotroph
    • Energy from sun (photosynthesis)
    • Carbon from CO2
  • Chemoautotroph
    • Energy from simple compounds (iron, sulfur, etc.)
    • Carbon from CO2
  • Photoheterotroph
    • Energy from sun
    • Carbon from organic compounds
  • Chemoheterotroph (most common kind)
    • Energy from simple compounds
    • Carbon from organic compounds
prokaryotic fission
Prokaryotic Fission
  • Similar to mitosis, but simpler
  • DNA duplicates
  • DNA molecules move to opposite sides of cell
  • New cell membrane & wall form across middle
  • Cell divides
conjugation
Conjugation
  • Transfer section of DNA from one cell to another
  • Transfers genes, characteristics
    • Antibiotic resistance
domain eubacteria
Domain Eubacteria
  • Cyanobacteria
    • One of most primitive kind
    • Photoautotrophs
    • Produce oxygen
    • “Fix” nitrogen (convert N2 gas to nitrogen compounds)
domain eubacteria1
Domain Eubacteria
  • Proteobacteria
    • All gram-negative
    • Chemoautotrophs
    • Important to nutrient cycles
    • Rhizobium
      • Roots of legumes (peas, soybeans, etc.)
domain eubacteria2
Domain Eubacteria
  • Chlamydia
    • Intracellular parasites
    • One species causes STD
  • Spirochaetes
    • Free-living, parasites, or symbionts
    • Motile “springs”
    • Borreliaburgdorferi—Lyme disease
domain eubacteria3
Domain Eubacteria
  • Gram-positives
    • Still being sorted out
    • Chemoheterotrophs (most)
    • Lactobacillus—dairy foods (i.e. yogurt)
    • Bacillus anthracis—anthrax
    • Clostridium tetani—tetanus
domain archaebacteria
Domain Archaebacteria
  • “Extremophiles”
  • Primitive, but resemble other bacteria
  • Different cells walls (no peptidoglycan)
domain archaebacteria1
Domain Archaebacteria
  • Thermophiles
    • Heat lovers
    • Sulfur used to make ATP
    • Temperatures can exceed 110o C
domain archaebacteria2
Domain Archaebacteria
  • Methanogens
    • Create methane gas
    • Marshes, Antarctica, deep ocean
    • Symbionts (termites, cattle)
    • Important to carbon cycling
    • Anaerobes
domain archaebacteria3
Domain Archaebacteria
  • Halophiles
    • Salt lovers
    • Environments 10x salinity of sea water
    • Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake
living things must
Living things must….
  • Acquire energy
  • Metabolize
  • Maintain homeostasis
  • Grow
  • Reproduce
  • Respond
  • Adapt
viruses
Viruses
  • Noncellular
  • Infectious parasite
  • Two main characteristics
    • Protein coat around nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
    • Cannot reproduce itself
viruses1
Viruses
  • Herpes
  • Smallpox
  • Hepatitis B
  • Rhino virus (common cold)
  • HIV
  • Influenza
  • Rabies
viral multiplication
Viral Multiplication
  • Attachment
  • Penetration
  • Replication & synthesis
  • Assembly
  • Release
viral multiplication1
Viral Multiplication
  • Lytic Pathway—host cell bursts (lysis) & dies, releasing viruses
  • Very rapid
viral multiplication2
Viral Multiplication
  • Lysogenic Pathway—host cell lives, viral DNA merges w/ host’s & is duplicated w/ host DNA
viral multiplication3
Viral Multiplication
  • Latent Period
    • virus in lysogenic pathway, reproducing but not showing disease
    • Stress or other stimulus signals virus into lytic pathway
    • Herpes virus
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