Chapter 21
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 27

Chapter 21 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 86 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 21. Prokaryotes & Viruses. Taxonomy. Domain Eukarya KingdomAnimalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Cetacea Family Delphinidae Genus Tursiops Species truncatus Bottlenose dolphin. Domains. Eubacteria (Bacteria) Archaebacteria (Archaea) Eukarya

Download Presentation

Chapter 21

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 21

Chapter 21

Prokaryotes & Viruses


Taxonomy

Taxonomy

  • Domain Eukarya

  • KingdomAnimalia

  • PhylumChordata

  • ClassMammalia

  • OrderCetacea

  • FamilyDelphinidae

  • GenusTursiops

  • Speciestruncatus

  • Bottlenose dolphin


Domains

Domains

  • Eubacteria (Bacteria)

  • Archaebacteria (Archaea)

  • Eukarya

    • Kingdom Protista

    • Kingdom Fungi

    • Kingdom Plantae

    • Kingdom Animalia


Prokaryotes vs eukaryotes

Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes

  • Prokaryotes—simplest, most “primitive”

    • bacteria

  • Eukaryotes— “true” cells, more “advanced”

    • Complex organisms, multicelled


Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes

  • No membrane around nucleus

  • No true organelles

  • Single chromosome (nucleoid)

    • May have plasmids

  • Cell wall (most)

  • Reproduce by prokaryotic fission


Bacterial shapes

Bacterial Shapes

  • Coccus (cocci)—spherical

  • Bacillus (bacilli)—rod

  • Sprillum (spirilla)—spiral, twist


Bacterial structures

Bacterial Structures

  • Cell wall

    • Peptidoglycan (polysaccharide)

    • Maintain shape

    • ID species

      • Gram-positive—thick wall

        • Stain purple

      • Gram-negative—thin wall

        • Stain pink


Bacterial structures1

Bacterial Structures

  • Glycocalyx—capsule or slime layer

    • Attach to structures (teeth, intestine, rocks, etc.)

    • Protection

  • Pili—thin, hair-like proteins

    • Adhere to surfaces

    • Adhere to other baceria

  • Flagellum

    • Movement


Metabolism

Metabolism

  • Photoautotroph

    • Energy from sun (photosynthesis)

    • Carbon from CO2

  • Chemoautotroph

    • Energy from simple compounds (iron, sulfur, etc.)

    • Carbon from CO2

  • Photoheterotroph

    • Energy from sun

    • Carbon from organic compounds

  • Chemoheterotroph (most common kind)

    • Energy from simple compounds

    • Carbon from organic compounds


Prokaryotic fission

Prokaryotic Fission

  • Similar to mitosis, but simpler

  • DNA duplicates

  • DNA molecules move to opposite sides of cell

  • New cell membrane & wall form across middle

  • Cell divides


Conjugation

Conjugation

  • Transfer section of DNA from one cell to another

  • Transfers genes, characteristics

    • Antibiotic resistance


Domain eubacteria

Domain Eubacteria

  • Cyanobacteria

    • One of most primitive kind

    • Photoautotrophs

    • Produce oxygen

    • “Fix” nitrogen (convert N2 gas to nitrogen compounds)


Domain eubacteria1

Domain Eubacteria

  • Proteobacteria

    • All gram-negative

    • Chemoautotrophs

    • Important to nutrient cycles

    • Rhizobium

      • Roots of legumes (peas, soybeans, etc.)


Domain eubacteria2

Domain Eubacteria

  • Chlamydia

    • Intracellular parasites

    • One species causes STD

  • Spirochaetes

    • Free-living, parasites, or symbionts

    • Motile “springs”

    • Borreliaburgdorferi—Lyme disease


Domain eubacteria3

Domain Eubacteria

  • Gram-positives

    • Still being sorted out

    • Chemoheterotrophs (most)

    • Lactobacillus—dairy foods (i.e. yogurt)

    • Bacillus anthracis—anthrax

    • Clostridium tetani—tetanus


Domain archaebacteria

Domain Archaebacteria

  • “Extremophiles”

  • Primitive, but resemble other bacteria

  • Different cells walls (no peptidoglycan)


Domain archaebacteria1

Domain Archaebacteria

  • Thermophiles

    • Heat lovers

    • Sulfur used to make ATP

    • Temperatures can exceed 110o C


Domain archaebacteria2

Domain Archaebacteria

  • Methanogens

    • Create methane gas

    • Marshes, Antarctica, deep ocean

    • Symbionts (termites, cattle)

    • Important to carbon cycling

    • Anaerobes


Domain archaebacteria3

Domain Archaebacteria

  • Halophiles

    • Salt lovers

    • Environments 10x salinity of sea water

    • Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake


Living things must

Living things must….

  • Acquire energy

  • Metabolize

  • Maintain homeostasis

  • Grow

  • Reproduce

  • Respond

  • Adapt


Viruses

Viruses

  • Noncellular

  • Infectious parasite

  • Two main characteristics

    • Protein coat around nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)

    • Cannot reproduce itself


Viruses1

Viruses

  • Herpes

  • Smallpox

  • Hepatitis B

  • Rhino virus (common cold)

  • HIV

  • Influenza

  • Rabies


Viral multiplication

Viral Multiplication

  • Attachment

  • Penetration

  • Replication & synthesis

  • Assembly

  • Release


Viral multiplication1

Viral Multiplication

  • Lytic Pathway—host cell bursts (lysis) & dies, releasing viruses

  • Very rapid


Viral multiplication2

Viral Multiplication

  • Lysogenic Pathway—host cell lives, viral DNA merges w/ host’s & is duplicated w/ host DNA


Viral multiplication3

Viral Multiplication

  • Latent Period

    • virus in lysogenic pathway, reproducing but not showing disease

    • Stress or other stimulus signals virus into lytic pathway

    • Herpes virus


  • Login