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Chapter 18. Chapter 18. Psychological Disorders Section 1 Don’t try and diagnose someone yourself, certain behaviors do not make for a psychological disorder. Psychological Disorders. How does normal thoughts and behavior differ from abnormal thoughts and behaviors?. Cultural differences.

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Chapter 18

Chapter 18


Chapter 181

Chapter 18

  • Psychological Disorders

  • Section 1

  • Don’t try and diagnose someone yourself, certain behaviors do not make for a psychological disorder


Psychological disorders

Psychological Disorders

  • How does normal thoughts and behavior differ from abnormal thoughts and behaviors?


Cultural differences

Cultural differences

  • What difference does culture make in abnormal and normal behavior?

  • How close can you stand to someone and have it be normal?

  • Experiment- Find out what is the distance for how close someone can be to not invade your space

  • Japan- 40 Inches Middle east 32 inches Ogallala?


Psychological disorder

Psychological disorder

  • Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to to cope with every day life.


Numbers

Numbers

  • How much of the population have a disorder

  • Up to 1/3

  • Any given month 13% of the population is showing signs of a disorder.


What is abnormal or normal behavior

What is abnormal or normal behavior?

  • Usually differences are in the exaggeration of certain behaviors that leads to being classified as abnormal

  • Example- Laughing and laughing at funerals- others


Symptoms of disorders

Symptoms of disorders

  • diagnoses are not always simple or straightforward


What a psychologist would look for when diagnosing disorders

What a Psychologist would look for when diagnosing disorders


1 typicality

1. Typicality

  • to what degree is it typical or average.

  • Just because it is not typical does not mean it’s abnormal

  • Examples:


What would be other examples

What would be other examples?

  • Plastic Surgery

  • What you wear or don’t wear

  • What you eat or don’t eat

  • What is your past time

  • Addictions


2 maladaptivity

2. Maladaptivity

  • Behavior impairs a persons ability to function adequately in everyday life

  • Examples


3 emotional discomfort

3.Emotional discomfort

  • If it is severe enough or last long enough then treatment will be needed.

  • Examples:


4 socially unacceptable behavior

4. Socially Unacceptable behavior

  • Must take into culture beliefs

  • what is unacceptable to some may not be to others.

  • Examples:


Classifying disorders

Classifying Disorders

  • DSM

  • Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  • DSM IV 18 Categories

  • Page 414-book


Section 2

Section 2

  • Anxiety Disorders


When have you been anxious

When have you been anxious?

  • Big game

  • Test

  • Meeting someone

  • Anxiety is among the most common of the disorders in the United States.


Anxiety

Anxiety

  • general state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a danger or a threat.


Characteristics

Characteristics

  • Nervousness, inability to relax, concern about losing control


Physical symptoms

Physical symptoms

  • trembling, sweating, rapid pulse, flushed face, feelings of faintness or light-headedness


Types of disorders

Types of Disorders

  • 1. Phobic Disorder

  • Phobia Greek word for fear

  • Irrational fear of a particular object or situation

  • must lead to behavior that interferes with a persons normal life


Http www phobialist com reverse html list of phobias

http://www.phobialist.com/reverse.htmlList of phobias

  • What type would be phobias that could lead to disrupting a persons life

  • What is the difference between a phobia and a fear?


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  • Ablutophobia- Fear of washing or bathing.Acarophobia- Fear of itching or of the insects that cause itching.Acerophobia- Fear of sourness.Achluophobia- Fear of darkness.Acousticophobia- Fear of noise.Acrophobia- Fear of heights.Aerophobia- Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne noxious substances.Aeroacrophobia- Fear of open high places.Aeronausiphobia- Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.Agateophobia- Fear of insanity.Agliophobia- Fear of pain.Agoraphobia- Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place


Social phobia

Social Phobia

  • Fear of social situations


2 panic disorder and agoraphobia

2. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia


Panic attack

Panic attack

  • relative short period of intense fear of discomfort

  • shortness of breath, shaking, dizziness, rapid heart rate, sweating nausea or other physical symptoms.

  • Lasts from a few minutes to a few hours


Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia

  • fear of being in a place or situation

  • makes up 50 -80 % of all phobias


3 general anxiety disorder

3. General Anxiety Disorder

  • GAD

  • unrealistic worry about life circumstances that last for at least 6 months

  • very hard to distinguishes between other anxiety disorders.


4 obsessive compulsive disorder

4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder


Obsessions

obsessions

  • unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that occur over and over again

  • often senseless or repulsive


Compulsions

Compulsions-

  • repetitive rituals behaviors, often involving checking or cleaning

  • number of times he chews his food

  • touching a toilet seat

  • washing hands

  • Arranging things


Chapter 18

How far will you go in touching “dirty” things?

Do you know how dirty money really is?

Everyone touch an object?

Everyone lick an object?


5 stress disorders

5. Stress Disorders


Post traumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder

  • PTSD- video

  • feelings of anxiety that are caused by experience so traumatic that it produces stress in almost everyone


Physical

Physical

  • flashbacks, nightmares

  • numbness of feelings

  • avoidance of stimuli that caused the trauma

  • increased tension

  • may last for months or decades


Acute stress disorder

Acute Stress disorder

  • Same as PTSD but for a much shorter more intense period of time.


How to explain disorders

How to explain disorders?


Psychological views

Psychological views


Psychoanalytic theory

Psychoanalytic theory

  • hidden or repressed urges that have been repressed from childhood.


Learning theory

Learning Theory

  • phobias are conditioned or learned during childhood.

  • People learn to reduce their anxiety by avoiding the situation that causes the problem


Biological views

Biological Views

  • heredity may play a role

  • Twin studies


Interaction of factors

Interaction of factors

  • Both probably play a role in anxiety disorders


Section 3

Section 3


Dissociate disorders

Dissociate Disorders

  • Separation of certain personality components or mental processes from conscious thought.


Normal activities

Normal activities

  • Daydreaming

  • get involved in something you lose track of things.

  • Miss a road sign because of concentration on other things.


Dissociative amnesia

Dissociative Amnesia

  • sudden loss of memory following a stressful or traumatic event

  • Does not result from a head injury but is from the mind


Dissociative fugue

Dissociative Fugue

  • forgetting past events but also characterized by sudden relocation and taking on a new identity.

  • New location as well


Dissociative identity disorder

Dissociative Identity Disorder

  • Multiple personalities.-video

  • Personalities may not be aware of each other

  • Vid 1 vid 2 vid 3

  • may change physical as well as personality traits.

  • Roles as an individual


Depersonalization disorder

Depersonalization Disorder

  • Detachment from ones mental processes or body.


Section 4

Section 4


Somatoform disorders

Somatoform disorders


Somatization

somatization

  • refers to the expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms.

  • Pain or paralysis


Many are mistreated as really physical not mental problems

Many are mistreated as really physical not mental problems


Conversion disorder

Conversion Disorder

  • loss of a physical function for which there is no medical reason


Hypochondriasis

Hypochondriasis

  • Hypochondria

  • an unhealthy fear of having or belief that one has a serious disease


Section 5

Section 5

  • Mood disorders


Major depression

Major depression

  • most common disorder


Must have 5 of the 9 characteristics to be classified major depression

Must have 5 of the 9 characteristics to be classified major depression.

  • Depressed mood for most of the day

  • loss of interest or pleasure in most activities

  • loss or gain of weight

  • sleeping more of less then usual


Chapter 18

  • speeding up or slowing down of physical or emotional reactions

  • fatigue or loss of energy

  • feeling of worthlessness of guilt

  • reduced ability or concentrate or make decisions

  • recurrent thoughts of suicide


Bipolar disorder

Bipolar Disorder

  • (manic Depression)

  • Video-


Mania

mania

  • extreme periods of hyperactivity and happy behavior

  • inflated self esteem

  • inability to sleep

  • pressure to keep talking and changing subjects often

  • racing thoughts

  • difficulty concentrating

  • Accompanied by extreme times of depression


Chapter 18

  • Bipolar- Frontline #1


Section 6

Section 6

  • Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

  • considered the most serious of the disorders

  • loss of contact with reality

  • appears in early adulthood

  • difficult to treat-overview

  • Video-Heather

  • Gerald-


Symptoms

symptoms

  • hallucination, delusions and thought disordersauditory voices


Delusions of grandeur

Delusions of grandeur

  • They are someone famous, or important


Delusions of persecution

Delusions of persecution

  • someone is always after them


Organization problems

Organization problems

  • Skip from topic to topic


Catatonic stupor

Catatonic stupor

  • immobile, expressionless, comalike state


Types of

Types of

  • Paranoid Schizophrenia

  • Disorganized Schizophrenia

  • Catatonic schizophrenia


Section 7

Section 7


Personality disorders

Personality Disorders

  • Personality- Page 430


Inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and or stress the affected individual

Inflexible traits that disrupt social life or work and or stress the affected individual


Chapter 18

These tend to be a part of the persons personality not something separate like a phobia or schizophrenia


Paranoid personality disorder

Paranoid Personality Disorder

  • Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a distrust of others and a constant suspicion that people around you have sinister motives. People with this disorder tend to have excessive trust in their own knowledge and abilities and usually avoid close relationships. They search for hidden meanings in everything and read hostile intentions into the actions of others. They are quick to challenge the loyalties of friends and loved ones and often appear cold and distant. They usually shift blame to other people and tend to carry long grudges.


Paranoid personality disorder1

Paranoid Personality Disorder

  • Unwillingness to forgive perceived insults

  • Excessive sensitivity to setbacks

  • Distrustfulness and excessive self-reliance

  • Projection of blame onto others

  • Consumed by anticipation of betrayal

  • Combative and tenacious adherence to personal rights

  • Relentlessly suspicious


Schizoid personality disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder

  • People with schizoid personality disorder avoid relationships and do not show much emotion. Unlike avoidants, schizoids genuinely prefer to be alone and do not secretly wish for popularity. They tend to seek jobs that require little social contact. Their social skills are often weak and they do not show a need for attention or acceptance. They are perceived by others as humorless and distant and often are termed "loners."


Schizoid personality disorder1

Schizoid Personality Disorder

  • Weak interpersonal skills

  • Difficulty expressing anger, even when provoked

  • "Loner" mentality; avoidance of social situations

  • Appear to others as remote, aloof, and unengaged

  • Unresponsive to praise or criticism


Antisocial

Antisocial

  • A common misconception is that antisocial personality disorder refers to people who have poor social skills. The opposite is often the case. Instead, antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a lack of conscience. People with this disorder are prone to criminal behavior, believing that their victims are weak and deserving of being taken advantage of. Antisocials tend to lie and steal. Often, they are careless with money and take action without thinking about consequences. They are often agressive and are much more concerned with their own needs than the needs of others.


Antisocial personality disorder

Antisocial Personality Disorder

  • Disregard for the feelings of others

  • Impulsive and irresponsible decision-making

  • Lack of remorse for harm done to others

  • Lying, stealing, other criminal behaviors

  • Disregard for the safety of self and others


Avoidant personality disorder

Avoidant Personality Disorder

  • Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by extreme social anxiety. People with this disorder often feel inadequate, avoid social situations, and seek out jobs with little contact with others. Avoidants are fearful of being rejected and worry about embarassing themselves in front of others. They exaggerate the potential difficulties of new situations to rationalize avoiding them. Often, they will create fantasy worlds to substitute for the real one. Unlike schizoid personality disorder, avoidants yearn for social relations yet feel they are unable to obtain them. They are frequently depressed and have low self-confidence


Avoidant personality disorder1

Avoidant Personality Disorder

  • Social inhibition; retreating from others in anticipation of rejection

  • Preoccupation with being rejected or criticized in social situations

  • Fear of embarrassment results in avoidance of new activities

  • Poor self-image; feelings of social ineptitude

  • Desire for improved social relations

  • Appear to others as self-involved and unfriendly

  • Creation of elaborate fantasy lives


Narcissistic

Narcissistic

  • Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by self-centeredness. Like histrionic disorder, people with this disorder seek attention and praise. They exaggerate their achievements, expecting others to recongize them as being superior. They tend to be choosy about picking friends, since they believe that not just anyone is worthy of being their friend. Narcissists tend to make good first impressions, yet have difficulty maintaining long-lasting relationships. They are generally uninterested in the feelings of others and may take advantage of them.


Narcissistic1

Narcissistic

  • Requires excessive praise and admiration

  • Takes advantage of others

  • Grandiose sense of self-importance

  • Lack of empathy

  • Lying, to self and others

  • Obsessed with fantasies of fame, power, or beauty


Dependent

Dependent

  • Difficulty making decisions

  • Feelings of helplessness when alone

  • Suicidal thoughts upon rejection

  • Submissiveness

  • Deeply hurt by mild criticism or disapproval

  • Unable to meet ordinary demands of life


Dependent1

Dependent

  • Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a need to be taken care of. People with this disorder tend to cling to people and fear losing them. They may become suicidal when a break-up is imminent. They tend to let others make important decisions for them and often jump from relationship to relationship. Dependents often remain in abusive relationships. Over-sensitivity to disapproval is common. Dependents often feel helpless and depressed.


Histrionic personality disorder

Histrionic Personality Disorder

  • People with histrionic personality disorder are constant attention seekers. They need to be the center of attention all the time, often interrupting others in order to dominate the conversation. They use grandiose language to discribe everyday events and seek constant praise. They may dress provacatively or exaggerate illnesses in order to gain attention. Histrionics also tend to exaggerate friendships and relationships, believing that everyone loves them. They are often manipulative.


Histrionic personality disorder1

Histrionic Personality Disorder

  • Needs to be the center of attention

  • Dresses or acts provocatively

  • Rapidly-shifting and shallow emotions

  • Exaggerates friendships

  • Overly-dramatic, occasionally theatrical speech

  • easily influenced; highly suggestible


Borderline personality disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder

  • Borderline personality disorder is characterized by mood instability and poor self-image. People with this disorder are prone to constant mood swings and bouts of anger. Often, they will take their anger out on themselves, causing injury to their own body. Suicidal threats and actions are not uncommon. Borderlines think in very black and white terms and often form intense, conflict-ridden relationships. They are quick to anger when their expectations are not met.


Borderline personality disorder1

Borderline Personality Disorder

  • Self-injury or attempted suicide

  • Strong feelings of anger, anxiety, or depression that last for several hours

  • Impulsive behavior

  • Drug or alcohol abuse

  • Feelings of low self-worth

  • Unstable relationships with friends, family, and boyfriends/girlfriends


Obsessive compulsive personality disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

  • While Obsessive-Compulsive personality disorder (OCDP) sounds similar in name to obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder, the two are markedly different disorders. People with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder are overly focused on orderliness and perfection. Their need to do everything "right" often interferes with their productivity. They tend to get caught up in the details and miss the bigger picture. They set unreasonably high standards for themselves and others, and tend to be very critical of others when they do not live up to these high standards. They avoid working in teams, believing others to be too careless or incompetent. They avoid making decisions because they fear making mistakes and are rarely generous with their time or money. They often have difficulty expressing emotion.


Obsessive compulsive personality disorder1

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder

  • Need for perfection and excessive discipline

  • Preoccupation with orderliness

  • Inflexibility

  • Lack of generosity

  • Hyper-focus on details and rules

  • Excessive devotion to work


Addictions

Addictions

  • The difference between substance abuse and addiction is very slight. Substance abuse means using an illegal substance or using a legal substance in the wrong way. Addiction begins as abuse, or using a substance like marijuana or cocaine. You can abuse a drug (or alcohol) without having an addiction. For example, just because Sara smoked weed a few times doesn't mean that she has an addiction, but it does mean that she's abusing a drug — and that could lead to an addiction


Chapter 18

  • Addiction means a person has no control over whether he or she uses a drug or drinks. Someone who's addicted to cocaine has grown so used to the drug that he or she has to have it. Addiction can be physical, psychological, or both


Chapter 18

  • Physical addiction is when a person's body actually becomes dependent on a particular substance (even smoking is physically addictive). It also means building tolerance to that substance, so that a person needs a larger dose than ever before to get the same effects. Someone who is physically addicted and stops using a substance like drugs, alcohol, or cigarettes may experience withdrawal symptoms. Common symptoms of withdrawal are diarrhea, shaking, and generally feeling awful


Chapter 18

  • Psychological addiction happens when the cravings for a drug are psychological or emotional.

  • People who are psychologically addicted feel overcome by the desire to have a drug. They may lie or steal to get it.


Chapter 18

  • Signs of Addiction

  • The most obvious sign of an addiction is the need to have a particular drug or substance. However, many other signs can suggest a possible addiction, such as changes in mood or weight loss or gain. (These also are signs of other conditions, too, though, such as depression or eating disorders.)


Chapter 18

  • Psychological signals:

  • use of drugs or alcohol as a way to forget problems or to relax

  • withdrawal or keeping secrets from family and friends

  • loss of interest in activities that used to be important

  • problems with schoolwork, such as slipping grades or absences

  • changes in friendships, such as hanging out only with friends who use drugs

  • spending a lot of time figuring out how to get drugs

  • stealing or selling belongings to be able to afford drugs

  • failed attempts to stop taking drugs or drinking

  • anxiety, anger, or depression

  • mood swings


Physical signals

Physical signals

  • changes in sleeping habits

  • feeling shaky or sick when trying to stop

  • needing to take more of the substance to get the same effect

  • changes in eating habits, including weight loss or gain


Other addictions

Other Addictions

  • What are things that people can become addicted to?

  • 1.7.

  • 2.8.

  • 3.9.

  • 4.10.

  • 5.11.

  • 6.12.


Addictions treatment

Addictions treatment


Other disorders

Other disorders

  • Gender Identity Disorder

  • Sleep Disorders

  • Impulsive- control Disorder-

    • Kleptomania, Pyromania


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