slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Understanding the CMMI

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Understanding the CMMI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 153 Views
  • Uploaded on

Understanding the CMMI. Topic Outline. Scope and purpose of the CMMI Activities that support the purpose of a given process area How Quality Management (QM) relates to CMMI QM goals Behavior exhibited by a high-maturity organization What the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) expects.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Understanding the CMMI' - astro


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
topic outline
Topic Outline
  • Scope and purpose of the CMMI
  • Activities that support the purpose of a given process area
  • How Quality Management (QM) relates to CMMI
  • QM goals
  • Behavior exhibited by a high-maturity organization
  • What the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) expects

Friends Romans

Lend Me

Your Ears

cmmi a process maturity model
CMMI: A Process Maturity Model

Level 5

Level 4

Project and Organization

Improve

Define

Control

Measure

Level 2

All

Levels

ExecuteProcess

Level 3

Project

process areas

Staged Maturity Level

Process Areas

Six Engineering process areas

2 – Requirements Management (REQM)

3 – Requirements Development (RD)

3 – Technical Solution (TS)

3 – Product Integration (PI)

3 – Verification (VER)

3– Validation (VAL)

process areas cont

Staged Maturity Level

Process Areas (cont.)

Six Project Management process areas

Basic

2– Project Planning (PP)

2– Project Monitoring and Control (PMC)

2– Supplier Agreement Management (SAM)

Advanced

3– Integrated Project Management (IPM)

3– Risk Management (RSKM)

4– Quantitative Project Management (QPM)

process areas cont1

Staged Maturity Level

Process Areas (cont.)

Five Support process areas

Basic

2– Configuration Management (CM)

2– Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA)

2– Measurement and Analysis (MA)

Advanced

3– Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR)

5– Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR)

process areas cont2

Staged Maturity Level

Process Areas (cont.)

Five Process Management process areas

Basic

3– Organizational Process Focus (OPF)

3– Organizational Process Definition (OPD)

3– Organizational Training (OT)

Advanced

4– Organizational Process Performance (OPP)

5– Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID)

measurement and analysis
Measurement and Analysis

Purpose

To develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs.

– CMMI V1.2

ma specific goals
MA Specific Goals

SG 1: Align Measurement and Analysis Activities

Measurement objectives and activities are aligned with identified information needs and objectives.

SG 2: Provide Measurement Results

Measurement results that address identified information needs and objectives are provided.

– CMMI V1.2

ma goal overview

PA: Measurement and Analysis (MA)

  • Procedures; Tools

MA SG 1: Align Measurement and Analysis Activities

MA SG 2: Provide Measurement Results

PMC

OPD

  • Delivered
  • reports
  • Measurement
  • repository
  • Business
  • information
  • needs

RD

PP

PMC

MA Goal Overview
ma goal 1 detail

PA: Measurement and Analysis (MA)

MA SG 1: Align Measurement and Analysis Activities

  • Measurement objectives
  • EstablishMeasurementObjectives

1.1

  • SpecifyMeasures

1.2

  • SpecifyAnalysisProcedures

1.4

QPM

  • SpecifyData Collectionand StorageProcedures

1.3

  • Business information needs
  • Measurement specifications
  • Procedures;
  • Tools

MA SG 2: Provide Measurement Results

MA Goal 1 Detail
ma goal 2 detail

PA: Measurement and Analysis (MA)

MA SG 1: Align Measurement and Analysis Activities

  • Procedures; Tools

MA SG 2: Provide Measurement Results

  • Indicators
  • StoreData andResults

2.3

CM

  • Analyze MeasurementData

2.2

  • Communicate
  • Results

2.4

  • CollectMeasurement
  • Data

2.1

  • Delivered reports
  • Measures
  • Measurement repository
MA Goal 2 Detail
fundamental premise
Fundamental Premise

Quality of products is largely determined by the quality of the processes used to develop the products

quality and performance objectives
Quality and Performance Objectives
  • Achieving objectives depends on successfully establishing an infrastructure that enables and encourages all people in an organization to propose potential improvements
  • Improvement proposals are systematically gathered and addressed
  • Pilots are conducted to evaluate significant changes
  • Best practices and lessons learned are collected and shared
quantitative management
Quantitative Management

Adapts and applies proven process and QM principles to software-intensive systems

Defines, manages, and controls quality of software processes and work products, so that

Processes perform as expected

Products conform to customer, project, and organizational requirements

Depends on collection and analysis of appropriate measures

Relies on coordination of analysis results across the organization to maximize knowledge

Supplements traditional project management measurements

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

quantitative management process
Quantitative Management Process

Feedback for future planning

Quality

Management

  • Organizational Assets
  • Goals
  • Models
  • Historical Problems
  • Historical Process Performance

Indication for Quality

Correction

QM

Plan

Product

Quality

Measures

Measurement

Definitions

Quality and

Performance

Planning

Project

Management

Project

Plan

QM

Plan

Process

Performance

Measures

QM

Plan

  • Project Assets
  • Customer Needs
  • Performance Rqmts
  • Resources

Indication for Process

Adjustment

Process

Control

Owner

Project

Organization

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

quantitative management elements
Quantitative Management Elements

Quality and performance planning

Process performance requirements

Product quality requirements

Quality management

Predicting achieved quality

Projecting outcomes

Measurement

Measuring achieved performance

Process control

Predicting process performance

Investigating unusual variation

Project management

Taking corrective actions

Organizational analysis

Developing models

Analyzing trends

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

terms and definitions
Terms and Definitions

Quality

Economical conformance to requirements*

Meet needs of customer and user

Process

Logical organization of people, materials, energy, equipment, and procedures into work activities designed to produce a specified end result **

Many dimensions: Level, scope, type

Process level

Organization: One or more standard process models with supporting assets (e.g., process element descriptions)

Project: Result of tailoring the organization’s process to achieve the goals of a specific project

* Source: Crosby, Philip B. Quality is Free. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1980.

** Source: Pall, Gabriel. Quality Process Management, 1987.

historical transition
Historical Transition

From people control

Minimum time, effort, and procedures for every task can be defined

Time and motion studies are used to ensure optimization

Process outcomes are deterministic

Failure is due to worker inattention

To process control

All processes, including engineering processes, have variation

Performance can be improved by understanding and managing variation

Process outcomes are probabilistic

Failure is due to process issues

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

characteristics of qm
Characteristics of QM

Focuses on the techniques that provide business value

Integrates well-understood quality planning and process and QM techniques (e.g., Six Sigma)

Supported by a systematic program of guidebooks, training, and workshops

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

quantitative project management
Quantitative Project Management

Purpose

To quantitatively manage the project’s defined process to achieve the project’s established quality and process-performance objectives.

– CMMI V1.2

qpm specific goals
QPM Specific Goals

SG 1: Quantitatively Manage the Project

The project is quantitatively managed using quality and process-performance objectives.

SG 2: Statistically Manage Subprocess Performance

The performance of selected subprocesses within the project’s defined process is statistically managed.

– CMMI V1.2

qpm goal overview

PA: Quantitative Project Management (QPM)

  • Selected subprocesses
  • Organizational
  • process
  • performance
  • objectives

OPP

QPM SG 2: Statistically Manage Subprocess Performance

QPM SG 1: Quantitatively Manage the Project

OPP

Performance

baselines

OPD

Measurement

repository

  • Process
  • performance
  • models

OPP

  • Subprocess performance

PMC

  • Remedial actions
QPM Goal Overview
qpm goal 1 detail

Establish

  • the Project’sObjectives

1.1

  • Compose the Defined Process

1.2

  • ManageProjectPerformance

1.4

  • Process performance
  • models
  • Select
  • processesfor SPC
  • *

1.3

  • Selectedsubprocesses
QPM Goal 1 Detail

PA: Quantitative Project Management (QPM)

QPM SG 1: Quantitatively Manage the Project

  • Project performance objectives
  • Remedial actions

RSKM

IPM

RSKM

MA

MA

SAM

project

  • Defined process
  • Predictions of
  • performance
  • Organizational process performance
  • objectives
  • Subprocess performance

QPM SG 2: Statistically Manage

Subprocess Performance

* QPM SG 1 SP 1.3: Select the Subprocesses that Will Be Statistically Managed

qpm goal 2 detail

Understand process

  • variation
  • *

2.2

  • RecordStatisticalManagementData

2.4

  • SelectMeasures and AnalyticTechniques

2.1

* QPM SG 2 SP 2.2: Apply Statistical Methods to Understand Variation

** QPM SG 2 SP 2.3: Monitor Performance of the Selected Subprocesses

QPM Goal 2 Detail

PA: Quantitative Project Management (QPM)

QPM SG 1: Quantitatively Manage the Project

  • Selectedsubprocesses
  • Subprocess performance

QPM SG 2: Statistically Manage

Subprocess Performance

  • Statistical control data

MA

MA

PMC

OPD

MA

  • Monitor processperformance
  • **

2.1

process

  • Process capabilitymeasures
  • Remedial actions
  • Measures & techniques
  • Measurement
  • repository
  • Performance baselines
  • Statistical management data
organizational process performance
Organizational Process Performance

Purpose

To establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects.

– CMMI V1.2

  • SG 1: Establish Performance Baselines and Models
    • Baselines and models that characterize the expected process performance of the organization’s set of standard processes are established and maintained.
    • – CMMI V1.2
opp goal overview

Processperformancemodels

QPM

OID

OPP Goal Overview

PA: Organizational Process Performance (OPP)

  • Organizational
  • process
  • objectives

OPF

OPP SG 1: Establish Performance Baselines and Models

Organizational

process

performance

objectives

  • Standard processes

OPD

QPM

opp goal 1 detail

Select

  • Processes

1.1

PA: Organizational Process Performance (OPP)

OPP SG 1: Establish Performance Baselines and Models

  • Selected subprocesses from organization’s standard processes
  • Establish Process PerformanceMeasures

1.2

  • Establish
  • ProcessPerformance
  • Baselines

1.4

  • EstablishProcessPerformance
  • Models

1.5

MA

MA

DAR

  • Organizational
  • process
  • performance
  • baselines
  • Process performancemodels
  • Organization’s standard processes
  • Organizational process performance objectives
  • Organization’s standard measures
  • Establish
  • quantitative
  • objectives*

1.1

  • Organizational process objectives

* OPP SG 1 SP 1.3-1: Establish Quality and Process-Performance Objectives

OPP Goal 1 Detail
performance measurement
Performance Measurement
  • Common measures are used tocapture the actual performanceof processes and products inindividual projects
  • Measurements are analyzed toestablish a distribution and rangeof results
  • Results characterize the expected performance of the process when used on any individual project in the organization
organizational process performance1
Organizational Process Performance

Measures, data, and analytic techniquesfor processes and products enable you to

  • Determine whether the processes areconsistent, stable, and predictable
  • Identify processes that perform withinconsistent bounds and across process implementation teams
  • Establish criteria for identifying whether a process or process element should be statistically managed
  • Identify processes that show unusual, sporadic, or unpredictable behavior
  • Identify any aspects of the processes that can be improved in the organization\'s set of standard processes
  • Identify best practices
intent of cmmi level 4
Intent of CMMI Level 4
  • Organizational and customer needs are quantified
  • A quantitative understanding of the product and process exists
    • Process capability: range of expected results
    • Process performance: actual results achieved
  • Statistical methods are applied
  • Special causes of process variation are eliminated to stabilize process performance
  • Product quality is measured throughout the lifecycle and compared to expected results
so what does level 4 mean
Process

Selected process elements are quantitatively understood and stabilized

Sources of individual problems are understood and eliminated

People

Strong sense of teamwork exists within each project

Measurement

Data definition and collection are standardized across the organization

Data are used to understand the process quantitatively and stabilize it

Technology

New technologies are evaluated on a quantitative basis

So What Does Level 4 Mean?

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

cultural change is required
Cultural Change Is Required

Organization is different when operating at Level 4

  • Level 4 is process and product measurement (builds on Levels 2 and 3, project measurement)
  • Measuring and analyzing change behavior
    • Management by numbers, not by “fire fighting”
    • Drive out fearUse measurement to monitor and change process, not to threaten people*

Organizational changes need to be managed

  • Address changes with change management techniques
  • Management requires new skills and experimental approach

* Source: Deming, W. Edwards. Out of the crisis: quality, productivity and competitive position. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

why are levels 4 and 5 difficult
Organization must set quantitative business goals

Levels 2 and 3 focused on generalized improvement

Levels 4 and 5 results are maximized by goal-driven improvements

Requires a paradigm shift

Levels 2 and 3 achieved through conformance

Levels 4 and 5 require initiative and creativity

Change in management focus

Levels 2 and 3 focus on project measurement

Level 4 introduces process and product measurement

Levels 4 and 5 seek to understand organizational performance

New skills are required

Levels 2 and 3 document existing skills

Levels 4 and 5 require newmeasurement and statistical skills

Why Are Levels 4 and 5 Difficult?

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

what are the differences in behavior
At Levels 2 and 3...

Management reacts

Conducts comparative rather than internal analysis

Manages to specifications

Does not understand process capability

Measurement program

Data available for decision makers

Data analyzed at project level

Data quality often still a concern

At Levels 4 and 5…

Management anticipates

Predicts results of critical processes

Manages process variation and product quality

Evaluates outcomes relative to capability

Measurement program

Data used for decision making

Data analyzed at organizational and project levels

What Are the Differences in Behavior?

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

qm resulting capability
QM Resulting Capability
  • Process is predictable because the process is measured and operates within known limits
    • Capability can be computed
  • QM allows for predictive trends in process and quality within quantitative bounds and allows for corrective action when limits are exceeded
  • Products are created with predictably high quality

Source: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc. Introduction to Higher Maturity Measurement, SSCI-2006004-MC, version 1.1. Herndon, Virginia: Systems and Software Consortium, Inc., 2007.

topic summary
Topic Summary
  • CMMI is a process maturity model incorporating quantitative and process management concepts
  • Level 4 is more than measurement program enhancement
    • Selected process and product measurement data is used quantitatively to manage the project
    • Statistical methods must be used
  • Organization needs to understand and nurture behavioral and cultural changes while providing required infrastructure and skills
ad