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What is a Revolution?. A revolution" can be broken down into four requirements:An overthrow of the existing government but not just a simple coup d'etatThe placement of a new governmental system to replace the oldThe participants of the revolution must be home grown" and not be pushed by an out

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Modern Europe I HIS-106

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Modern Europe IHIS-106

Unit 10 - The French Revolution


What is a Revolution?

  • A revolution can be broken down into four requirements:

    • An overthrow of the existing government but not just a simple coup detat

    • The placement of a new governmental system to replace the old

    • The participants of the revolution must be home grown and not be pushed by an outside group

    • It occurs in the modern period as most of the ideas of revolution come out of the Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries


Importance of the French Revolution

  • There are three things that made the Revolution important:

    • What occurred in France becomes a model for future revolutions in Europe even up to modern day

    • It changed the political map of Europe for the rest of the modern period

    • It brought the people into politics

      • Before, politics had been limited to the upper classes, the nobility, and the clergy

      • Afterwards, the masses were able to participate in government


What Makes France So Special?

  • In the 18th century, France was the most advanced and powerful country in Europe

  • It was one of the dominant military powers, rivaled only by Britain

    • France helped the Americans win their independence from the British

  • It was the most populous country in Europe

    • The population of France was around 24 million which was even larger than Russia before the divisions of Poland

    • Paris was only rivaled by London in size


What Makes France So Special?

  • France was also the center of the Enlightenment and the radical ideas of the time

    • This was ironic since it was also one of the most oppressed countries in Europe when it came to freedom of speech

    • The philosophes set down the modern political and social theories that sparked many of the revolutions

  • French culture also dominated Europe

    • French became the official language of many of the courts of the time

  • When the revolution breaks out in France, it was going to have a major impact on Europe, for good or for bad


France Before the Revolution

  • The Ancien Rgime

    • The ruling dynasties were the Valois and Bourbon (1328-1792)

    • It was a period of aristocratic privilege similar to the old feudal system of the Middle Ages

  • Starting in the 18th century, tensions arose among the various classes

    • Aristocrats resented the freedoms the monarchs had allowed the middle class

    • Middle class resented a society of privilege that was outmoded

    • Peasants resented the increasing demands of the central government


Causes of the French Revolution

  • Four categories of causes of the French Revolution

  • Intellectual Causes

    • Mainly based on the influence of Enlightenment ideas

      • Liberal ideals

      • Rights of Man - Life, liberty, and property

      • Self-Determination - A government by the people

      • Equality under the law

      • End to Feudalism and State-Controlled Economy

    • American Revolution also played a role

      • Creation of a Free Republic

      • Many French fought in the American Revolution


  • The Three Estates


The Three Estates

  • Social causes of the Revolution are based on the archaic three estate system

    • First Estate (premier tat) - The Church

    • Second Estate (deuxieme tat) - The Nobility

    • Third Estate (tiers tat) Everybody else

  • Power was in the hands of the first two estates

    • Made up only around 5% of the population

    • Controlled most of the wealth and political power

  • Third Estate paid most of the taxes

    • Did not enjoy any political power even though its wealth and numbers were growing


The Three Estates

  • First Estate - Clergy

    • Made up 1% of the population (~100,000)

    • Owned 10% of the land in France

    • Exempt from property taxes

    • This estate collected a tithe, a 10% annual tax

  • Second Estate - Nobility

    • Made up around 2.5% of the population (~400,000)

    • Owned 20% of the land

    • "Noblesse d'pe" - ("Nobility of the Sword) Old Nobility

    • 50,000 new nobles created between 1700 and 1789

    • "Noblesse de Robe" - ("Nobility of the Robe) New Nobility


The Three Estates

  • Third Estate Everybody else

    • Made up approximately 97% of the population

    • Mainly peasants who paid most of the taxes

    • Owed obligations to landlord, church, and state

    • Direct and indirect taxation a heavy burden

    • The corve

  • Social boundaries between noble and non-noble ill-defined

    • Most noble wealth was proprietary (tied to land)

    • Influx of new wealth from banking, shipping, slave trade, and mining

    • Bourgeoisie identified with the nobility, not the common people


  • Louis XVI

    • (1774-1792)


Louis XVI (1774-1792)

  • The political cause centered around the reign of Louis XVI

  • Louis XVI came to the throne at the age of 19

  • He had no interest in running the government

    • Like his grandfather, he was more concerned about hunting

    • On July 14, 1789, he put in his hunting journal only one word: rien (nothing)

  • Hired Jean-FrdricPhlypeaux, Count of Maurepas, to be his chief advisor

    • Suggested the revival in the use of the parlements

      • These had been abolished during the reign of Louis XV

      • Louis thought this would increase his popularity with the nobility


Louis XVI (1774-1792)

  • In France, there were 13 parlements

    • The parlements did not write legislation

    • Instead, they were only required to ratify laws and take care of some administrative tasks

    • The king always had the right to veto any act of parlement

  • The most powerful of the parlements was the one in Paris

    • Here was where the king would request a lit de justice to have royal edicts passed

  • For a short period of time during the reign of Louis XV, the parlements were given the right to veto a kings act

    • As their members came from the Second Estate, they were unwilling to bring about any reforms that would threaten their power


Louis XVI (1774-1792)

  • Louis also did not show much interest in producing an heir to the throne

  • Married Marie Antoinette in 1700 at age 15

    • However, the marriage was not consummated until seven years later

    • May have been due to immaturity, impotence, or may have had a condition known as phimosis

  • Marie Antoinette was not very popular

    • She dispensed patronage among her friends

    • In 1783, the Hameau de la Reine ("The Queen's hamlet") was built for her by Louis XVI

    • In 1785, there was the Diamond Necklace Affair


  • Marie Antoinette

    • (1755-1793)


Economic Causes of the Revolution

  • Major cause of the Revolution: Economics

    • Played a role both in the long and short term

    • By 1780s, French economy was failing

  • Massive national debt

    • Accumulated during the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV

    • Due to the number of wars

    • Old tax system could not pay off the debt

    • The debt was viewed not as the countrys debt but the kings

    • By 1764, the national debt was up to 2.3 billion

      • Worth ~ $15.5 billion in 2010 currency

    • Interest on these loans was costing 60% of the annual budget


Economic Causes of the Revolution

  • Many countries in Europe were also in debt

    • Due to wars and economic depressions in the mid-1760s

    • Their tax systems were more efficient

  • Wartime taxes

    • Tried to extend wartime taxes to help pay these debts

    • Parlements opposed them

    • Focused instead on paying the interest rather than principle

  • Antiquated tax system

    • Taxes were collected by tax farmers

    • They collected the indirect taxes, such as tailleand gabelle(salt tax)

    • Able to keep a percentage of the taxes collected


Economic Causes of the Revolution

  • Only the Third Estate paid all the taxes

    • Taxation tied to social status and varied from region to region

    • It was mainly paid by the peasantry whose incomes were the lowest in the country

  • Not enough money going into the royal treasury

    • Yet France was considered one of the wealthiest countries

  • Attempts to reform taxes

    • Were attempts to tax nobility

    • All were opposed by the parlements

    • This conflict peaked during the reign of Louis XVI


  • Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

    • French Finance Minister

    • (1774-1776)


Rising Economic Crisis

  • Louis hired a number of financial ministers to help with the debt

  • Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot

    • He strongly followed laissez-faire styled economics

    • Wanted to implement a property tax

    • Parlements vetoed Turgots proposals

    • Could have saved France?

  • Jacques Necker

    • Old school economist and mercantilist

    • Managed financing for the American Revolution

      • Got loans to pay for the 1.3 billion livre cost

      • Ended up making the debt much worse


  • Jacques Necker

    • French Finance Minister (1777-1781)


Rising Economic Crisis

  • Tensions between the central governments and the provincial parlements slowed reform

    • Parlements defend nobilitys exemption from paying taxes to pay for the Seven Years War

  • Charles-Alexandre de Calonne

    • Was appointed as finance minister in 1783

    • By August 1786, France had a deficit of 112 million livre

    • The loans accumulated since 1776 totaled 1.25 billion in debt

    • At this point, France had no way of paying all of its debts

    • Calonne realized that minor changes would not help the government get out of debt


Rising Economic Crisis

  • Calonne proposed a tax on all the people of France

    • This would include the nobility

    • General tax on all landowners to replace the taille

  • Calling of the Assemble des notables

    • Calonne knew he would have problems getting these taxes through the Parlements

    • Called an Assemble des notables instead

    • If they supported his plan, he would have little difficultly getting it passed in the Parlements

  • Assembly of Notables was called on February 22, 1787

    • There were 144 people in attendance

    • Included the highest of the nobility, church, and bourgeoisie


  • Political cartoon of the Assembly of Notables

    My dear creatures, I have assembled you here to deliberate on the sauce in which you will be served


Rising Economic Crisis

  • Aristocrats used the financial emergency to extract constitutional reforms

    • Were willing to make some radical changes

    • This included the implementation of a land tax

  • Insisted that any new tax scheme be approved by the Estates-General

    • They refused to pass anything resembling a general tax

  • On April 8, 1787, Louis XVI fired Calonne

    • Replaced with Etienne Charles Lomenie de Brienne

  • Brienne was also unsuccessful at getting the tax laws passed


Rising Economic Crisis

  • Brienne turned to the clergy for help

    • Requested a large payment from them to help out the countrys finances

    • They refused

  • Brienne realized that there was nothing else he could do

    • Nothing would get passed without calling the Estates General

  • In August 1788, the financial crisis had worsened

    • On August 8, he announced that the Estates General would meet in May 1789

    • On August 16, the government stops repaying loans


  • Qu'est ce que le Tiers Etat?

    • What is the Third Estate? By Abb Sieys (January 1789)


Calling of the Estates General

  • Estates-General had not been called since 1614

  • The Three Estates elected delegates

    • Drew up the cahiers et dolances (list of grievances)

  • The delegates of the Third Estate represented the outlook of the elite

    • 25 percent lawyers, 43 percent government officials

    • Strong sense of common grievance and common purpose

  • Should the estates vote by estate or by individual?

    • Parlement of Paris stated that each of the estates would have only one vote each

    • Third Estate wanted double representation in the Estates


Calling of the Estates General

  • Double representation

    • On December 27, 1788, Louis allowed for double representation for the Third Estate

  • What is the Third Estate? (January 1789)

    • Pamphlet written by AbbSieys

    • Stated that the true desire of the Third Estate was to have true political power and have equal power to the first two estates combined

    • He also stated that the votes should be taken by head, not by estate

    • This sparked further debates throughout France

    • Lambasted the Second Estate as being useless without the Third Estate


  • Meeting of the Estates General (May 5, 1789)


The Estates General

  • The delegates for the Estates General met at Versailles on May 2, 1789

    • First two estates were greeted by Louis in the Hall of Mirrors

    • Third Estate was forced to wait until four hours later to meet the king in a different part of the palace

  • The Estates General opened on May 5

    • The three estates were to be seated in different chambers

    • The Third Estate refused to be segregated

    • Requested that all three estates sit in the same chamber

    • King announced that the voting would be by estate with each having one vote

    • Third Estate refused to pass any measures


The Estates General

  • On May 28th, the Third Estate began meeting on its own

    • They now called themselves the Communes (Commons)

  • AbbSieys also told the Commons that they should invite members of the other two estates to join them

    • They were hoping to attract the parish priests as many of them were poor

    • A number of clergy did join them

  • Commons wanted to create a new legislative body

    • This was because more than one estate was in attendance

    • AbbSieys stated that this body represented 98% of the country

    • It should start work immediately on the restoration of France


  • Abb Emmanuel-Joseph Sieys

    • (1748-1836)


The National Assembly

  • Creation of the National Assembly

    • Created by vote on June 17, 1789

    • Passed a measure stating that all taxes could not be collected unless passed by the National Assembly

  • Assembly continued to invited members of the other two estates to join

    • By June 19, 1789, over 100 clergy and nobility had joined

  • Louis planned a sance royale(Royal Session)

    • The purpose was to try to get the three estates back on track

    • The location was to be in the Salle des tats, the meeting place of the Assembly

    • When the National Assembly showed up to the Salle des tats on June 20, 1789, they found the doors locked


  • The Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789)


The National Assembly

  • The Assembly moved to a nearby indoor tennis court

  • Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789)

    • The members in attendance gave the following oath:

    • We swear never to separate ourselves from the National Assembly, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the realm is drawn up and fixed upon solid foundations.

    • It was passed 576-1 by the members

  • This was a key action by the National Assembly

    • They were going to put together a constitution with or without the king

    • The Assembly had true power of the country as it represented the people


The National Assembly

  • On June 22, 1789, the Assembly found itself locked out of the tennis court

    • The group went on to meet in the church of St. Louis

  • Louis recalled over 18,000 soldiers to Versailles

    • He would use them disband the Assembly by force if necessary

  • By June 24, most of the clergy had joined the Assembly along with 48 nobility

  • On June 27, Louis ordered all the delegates to join the Assembly

  • On July 9, the Assembly renamed itself the National Constituent Assembly


  • Riots and looting in France

    • (March-May 1789)


Revolution from Below

  • There were two sides to the revolution

    • The middle- and upper-classes were bringing about change for the country via politics

    • The lower-classes were making changes through riots

  • Suffering lower classes

    • They endured increases in the taille, gabelle, and in feudal dues

    • Hoped that the calling of the Estates General would help ease their financial burdens

  • Bread shortages

    • During the 1780s, weather patterns had a negative impact on crops

    • It was a peak period in the Little Ice Age

    • Eruptions in Iceland from 1783-1785


Revolution from Below

  • These weather patterns led to a decline in crop outputs

    • Bad winter in 1787/1788

    • Followed by severe hailstorm in July 1788

    • Led to a sharp increase in the price of grain and bread

  • Bread was a mainstay of the peasants diet

    • By 1788, most peasants were spending upwards of 50% of their income just on bread alone

    • By 1789, 80% of their income went to bread (highest since 1714)

    • This led to a severe food crisis throughout France

  • From 1785 to 1789, the cost of living increased 62%

    • However, wages only went up 22%


Revolution from Below

  • No government relief

    • Due to the countrys poor financial status

    • Some towns attempted to fix the price of bread

    • Failed to stop the growing famine in many regions

  • Economic depression made matters worse

    • Incomes of many workers declined rapidly

    • Rise in unemployment

  • Many peasants stopped paying their feudal dues and taxes

    • Some moved into the cities but were unable to find work

  • In the towns and cities, labor revolts broke out in the spring of 1789


Revolution from Below

  • Increase in crime and vagrancy

    • Due to so many people out of work and searching for food

  • Growing paranoia

    • Lower-class was positive the king and nobility were going to shut down the Third Estate

    • Specifically, they were fearful that the king was going to forcibly disband the Constituent Assembly

    • Rumors circulated that Louis was about to stage a coup dtat

  • Many people and towns began to arm themselves for protection

  • Parisian workers (sans-culottes) organized a militia of volunteers


  • Storming of the Bastille (July 14, 1789)


Storming of the Bastille

  • Riots and looting broke out on July 12, 1789

    • Many were looking for food and for weaponry

    • The GardesFranaises (French Guards) stood back and allowed the looting to occur as they were sympathetic to the people

  • July 14, a mob took weapons from the Htel des Invalides

    • They were able to take 28,000 muskets and ten cannons

    • However, they were not able to secure enough ammunition

  • The next target was the fortress of the Bastille

    • There was the belief that the Bastille held 250 barrels (20,000 pounds) of gunpowder

    • The mob ransacked the prison and took the governor and guards hostage


  • This is how we punish traitors


Great Fear of 1789

  • On July 17, 1789, the Revolution spread to the countryside

  • The situation there was already tense

    • Increase in vagrants, beggars, and criminals

    • Convinced that the nobility had employed these people to terrorize them

    • Rumors that the kings armies were on their way

    • The peasants responded by arming themselves in self-defense

  • The peasants wanted to destroy the manorial system

    • Burned the buildings where the taxes were collected

    • It escalated to sacking and burning down the manor homes

  • The nobility was forced to flee the countryside


  • The Great Fear of 1789


August Days

  • On August 4, 1789, the Assembly voted to:

    • Give up their seigneurial rights and declared an end to serfdom

    • Declare an end to the tithe, special privileges, and tax privileges

  • The Declarations of the Rights of Man and Citizen

    • Issued by the Assembly on August 26, 1789

    • Based on the ideas of the natural rights of man

    • Every citizen had the right to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression

    • All citizens were equal in the eyes of the law

    • Law is the expression of the general will

    • It called for the government by the people

    • The people were to decide how taxes were to be collected


August Days

  • The period of all of these changes became known as the August Days

    • Legislation the August Decrees

  • Working on a new government and constitution

    • The differing factors in the Assembly made this a difficult task

    • Conservatives wanted to keep the king as the main authority of the government with a bicameral legislature

    • Liberals wanted a unicameral legislative body

    • This was out of fear that the nobility in the upper house would give themselves back some of its power

  • Louis had refused to recognize the Declarations


  • Womens March on Versailles (October 5, 1789)


October Days

  • Women began gathering in Paris in early October 1789

    • They were specifically demanding bread

  • Rumors circulated that the king was hoarding bread at Versailles

    • The women decided to march on Versailles

  • Thousands of women had joined the march

    • Mainly middle-class women

    • Chanted songs about killing Marie Antoinette

    • Armed with broomsticks, pitchforks, muskets, and swords

    • By the time the group reached Versailles, the crowd numbered over 6,000


Womens March on Versailles

  • Louis met with a delegation of the women in the palace

    • He said that he would give what bread was available in the palace to the women but they did not believe him

  • Very early in the morning of October 6th, a large group of women found an open gate to the palace

    • They wanted the Austrian Whore and rushed to the Queens apartments

    • They chased the Queen and her entourage into the Kings apartments

  • The National Guard was able to stop the mob and get them out of the palace

    • The mob outside could not be calmed down until they saw the royal family


Womens March on Versailles

  • There were many shouts of Le Roi Paris!

    • They wanted Louis to see what was taking place there

  • Louis stated he would move the royal family to Paris

    • They were escorted to the city later that afternoon by both the National Guard and the armed women

    • They brought along flour found in Versailles as a goodwill gesture

  • The king was now forced to accept the August Decrees

    • Mobs affected politics

    • Louis was now a virtual prisoner of both the crowds and the Assembly


  • Painting of the royal family hiding in the kings chambers (October 6, 1789)


Economic Changes

  • The first focus of the Constituent Assembly was to help stimulate the failing economy

  • The first step was to deal with the huge debt

    • It refused to forgive the debt

  • The Assembly turned its attention to the church

    • Clergy were seen as part of the feudalistic system

    • The church owned millions of livre worth of land that the country could sell off to pay off its debt

  • The Assembly decided to nationalize church lands

    • The state would take both the land and its expenses

    • It would also take over the burden of its charitable work


Economic Changes

  • On November 2, 1790, the confiscation of church land began

  • Assignats

    • These printed bonds were created as a form of legal tender

    • Backed by the value of the church land (~ 400 million livre)

  • Many of the clergy were very unhappy with this

    • Argued that the church did not own these lands as a whole

    • Also felt that the state would not take the charitable work as piously as the church

  • This policy led to a rise in anti-revolutionary feelings amongst the clergy


  • Illustration of the monks and nuns celebrating the end of ecclesiastical orders (February 16, 1790)


Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  • Next step was secularizing the church

    • Assembly viewed the church as another old school power base

  • The first part of this included:

    • The end of the tithe (August 4, 1789)

    • The nationalization of church lands (November 2, 1789)

    • End to all ecclesiastical orders and monastic vows (February 13, 1790)

    • State control of all remaining church property (April 19, 1790)

  • Next was the reorganization of the church

    • This included putting control of the church in the hands of the state


Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy

    • Create 83 bishops, one for each dpartements

    • All church officials must be elected by the people

    • It also required all clergy to swear an oath to the state

    • The Constitution passed on July 12, 1790 by a large majority

  • There was much opposition to it from the clergy

    • Many were upset at the church being subordinate to the state

    • Others criticized how it reduced the spiritual authority of the pope


Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  • On November 27, 1790, the Assembly ordered all clergy to take the oath

    • Only seven bishops and 54% of parish priests took the oath

    • Those who refused were known as non-juring priests

  • King approved it on December 26, 1790

    • The pope never did and repudiated all clergy who took the oath

  • Created a huge schism between the Revolution and the Catholics

    • Many Catholics in the countryside who followed non-juring priests began a strong counter-revolutionary movement

    • There were also attacks against those who refused to conform to the Constitution


  • The three estates hammering out a new constitution


Writing A New Constitution

  • Writing of a new constitution

    • Became difficult as many of conservatives in the Assembly left

    • They were fearful that the new constitution was going to be influenced by the mobs rather than the politicians

    • Some even left the country and became migrs

  • Other members began to form political clubs

    • Largest was the Jacobin Club

    • Started as a moderate political club but soon became infamous for its radical stances on politics

  • From October 1789 to September 1791, worked on restructuring the government

    • Wanted to decentralize the government by taking the power out of the kings hands


Constitution of 1791

  • Constitution of 1791

    • King was a constitutional monarch

    • Had very limited powers

  • The Legislative Assembly was created

    • This was a unicameral legislature

    • Made up of 745 representatives who held two year terms

  • Only active citizens could vote for representatives

    • These were men over 25 who paid an annual tax equivalent to three days worth of labor (~ 3 livres) and were literate

    • While this meant that 4.3 million were eligible to vote, it was still only half of the male population


  • Louis XVI riding a pig


Flight to Varennes

  • Still problems for the Revolution

    • Still hurting financially due to widespread tax evasion

    • Rising cost of living made the peasants unhappy

    • The clergy were opposed to the Revolutionary government

    • Political clubs, like the Jacobins, were pushing for more radical ideas

  • Louis XVI was especially unhappy

    • Did not want to be limited in his power as king

    • Was unhappy with the Civil Constitution of the clergy

  • On June 20, 1791, the royal family attempted to flee

    • Disguised as servants to a Russian baroness

    • They made it as far as the town of Varennes, near the Belgium border


Flight to Varennes

  • There, Louis was recognized by the local postmaster

    • One legend has it that Drouet recognized the king because his likeness was printed on all assignats

  • They were immediately arrested and forced to return to Paris five days later

  • The Constituent Assembly suspended the kings authority upon his return to Paris

  • This event changed the course of the Revolution

    • The king was now viewed as a traitor

    • People began discussing the possibility of a republic without a king instead of a constitutional monarchy


  • Return of the royal family to Paris (June 25, 1791)


Legislative Assembly

  • On October 1, 1791, the Legislative Assembly met for the first time

  • It was divided into three main groups:

    • Jacobins Radicals

    • Girondins Republicans

    • Montagnards (Mountain) Radical democrats

  • Assembly made more radical changes to the church

    • Nonjuring priests would lose their pensions and be declared enemies of the patrie

    • They also allowed for the marriage of priests


Legislative Assembly

  • Growing violence

    • Assembly had to take more radical action in response to the growing violence in southern France

    • Due to a growing counter-revolutionary movement of loyal Catholics in the region

  • Actions against migrs

    • They were accused of fomenting plots against the Revolution

    • Their lands were confiscated and those on the borders were arrested

    • Assembly also required that all members of the royal family to return to France on the threat of having all of their property confiscated


  • French sans-culotte


Turn to Radical Revolution

  • Radical Revolution (August 1792 - July 1794)

    • From moderate leaders to radical republicans

  • Why did the Revolution become radical?

  • The politicization of the common people, especially in cities

    • Newspapers

    • Political clubs

    • Greater political awareness heightened by fluctuations in prices

    • Demands for cheaper bread

    • Demands for government to do something about inflation


Turn to Radical Revolution

  • Lack of effective national leadership

    • Louis XVI remained a weak and vacillating monarch

    • Louis urged on by Marie Antoinette, sister of Leopold II of Austria

    • Louis now a prisoner of the Revolution

  • Revolutionary War

    • War broke out against France in April 1792

    • All Europeans took a side in the conflict

    • Big powers were strongly against the Revolution

    • Political societies formed outside France proclaimed their allegiance to the Revolution

    • France was losing the war in the beginning


  • Edmund Burke

    • (1729-1797)


The Counter-Revolution

  • The migrs stirred up counterrevolutionary sentiment

    • They circulated telling horror stories about the Revolution

  • Edmund Burke (1729-1797)

    • He was a British Politician

    • Wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)

    • He believed that the Revolution was based too much on abstract ideas and not practical ones

    • He attacked the revolution as a crime against the social order and accused the French of turning their backs on history

    • He also argued that men and women had no natural rights

    • This aroused sympathy for the counterrevolutionary cause


The Counter-Revolution

  • Thomas Paine (17371809)

    • He was an author and one of the Founding Fathers

    • He wrote The Rights of Man (1792) in response to Burke

    • He called for political liberalism in all nations

  • Outside France there was reaction as well

    • Austria and Prussia declared support for French monarchy in August 1791

    • Even in the U.S. there was mixed reaction to the Revolution: while many people supported it, many believed it had become too radical


The Counter-Revolution

  • On April 20, 1792, the Assembly declared war on Austria and Prussia

    • Expected the war to bolster public opinion behind the Revolution

    • Radicals hoped the war would expose traitors

  • By that summer, the situation bad for France

    • Prussian troops crossed over the border into France and got as far as Verdun

    • Girondins put the blame on Marie Antoinette for giving secrets to the Austrians

    • On July 11, 1792, Assembly declared that La patrieest en danger

    • All citizens were required to arm themselves


  • Engraving of the death of General Thobald Dillon


Radicalization of the Revolution

  • As the war continued to worsen for the French, the Revolution took a more radical turn

  • Throughout the summer of 1792, there were calls for the execution of the king

    • Assembly did not plan to take any direct actions against him

    • The people were going to have to push the issue

  • Journe du 10 aot (August 10, 1792)

    • This began the second revolution

    • A mob marched on the Tuileries to take the power away from the king

    • When he fled to the Assembly, the mob followed him there


Radicalization of the Revolution

  • Assembly had to decide what course of action to take

    • Only about 1/3 of its members made it to the Assembly

    • Of those in attendance, almost all of them were Jacobins

  • It stripped the king of all of his power

    • The royal family was to be placed under arrest

  • It also called for a new convention to be elected by universal male suffrage

    • The job of this National Convention would be to write a new constitution for the newly created republic


  • Parisian citizens attacking the Tuileries


September Massacres

  • On September 1, 1792, news reached the city of Paris that the fortress at Verdun had fallen

    • The calls for the execution of political prisoners increased

  • Patriotic Paris mobs convened revolutionary tribunal to try traitors

    • Started with the assassination of a group of non-juring priests

    • Throughout Paris, many prisoners were killed over the next five days

    • Over 1,200 were killed (about the prison population), including 37 women

    • The estimated number of assassins involved was 150-200


September Massacres

  • One of the more famous people executed was the Princess de Lamballe

    • She was a friend of the queen who was stripped, hacked to death, and had her head paraded around on a pike

    • While some claim that she had also been raped and sexually mutilated, there is no proof of that

  • The Parisian government did nothing to stop the killings

    • Congratulated those who participated in the killings

    • Said they were doing their duty to the country

    • Encouraged other dpartments to follow the example

    • Led to even more killings outside of Paris


  • Illustration of the September Massacres


National Convention

  • When the Convention met on September 21, 1792, it was already dividing up into political groups

    • The most radical members, including Robespierre, sat high up in the Mountain seats

    • The Girondins took the right side of the Convention

    • The rest of the deputies took their seats in the lower level of the hall and became known as the Marais (the plain)

  • Jacobins outwardly supported the Parisian mobs

    • The Mountain also was willing to work with the sans-culottes

    • The Girondins supported the law and showed little respect towards the mob


National Convention

  • Declaration of a Republic (September 22, 1792)

    • Convention was to declare a republic and an end to the monarchy

    • This day would later become the first day of Year I

  • What to do with the king?

    • Mountain wanted him executed for crimes against the nation

    • Girondins wanted to spare the king

  • Smoking gun

    • On November 20, 1792, a locked box was found inside the palace at the Tuileries

    • It contained Louis correspondence with Austria

    • This proved Louis was guilty of treason


  • Trial of Louis XVI


Trial of Louis XVI

  • Trial of Louis XVI (December 11, 1792-January 15, 1793)

    • Louis was charged with having committed a multitude of crimes in order to establish your tyranny by destroying its liberty

    • Convention voted 693-0 that Louis was guilty of all charges

    • By a majority of 74, it voted him to be executed for his crimes

  • Execution (January 21, 1793)

    • Louis was executed in the place de la Concorde by guillotine

    • Over 20,000 people watched the execution take place

    • Louis last words were I die innocent of all the crimes of which I have been charged. I pardon those who have brought about my death and I pray that the blood you are about to shed may never be required of France


  • Execution of Louis XVI (January 21, 1793)


  • Matter for reflection for the Crowned Jugglers of Europe


Domestic Reforms

  • National Convention put through key domestic reforms

    • Abolition of slavery in French colonies

    • Repeal of primogeniture

    • Confiscated property of enemies of the Revolution

    • Set maximum prices for grain (loi du maximum)

    • The revolutionary calendar

  • Small armies of sans-culottes attacked hoarders and profiteers

  • The Convention also had to put through key military reforms

    • By February 1793, France was at war with Britain, Netherlands, Spain, and Austria


Domestic Reforms

  • Leve (February 24, 1793)

    • Convention put through its first draft

    • It called for 300,000 men for its army

  • War Against the First Coalition (1793-1797)

    • By March, France was at war with all of Europe

    • The First Coalition included Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, Spain, and the United Provinces of the Netherlands

  • Civil War in Vende

    • This was a very Catholic region in central western France that opposed the new draft

    • The people of the region erupted in revolt in March


  • God and King

    • Insignia worn by rebels in the Vende civil war


Background to the Terror

  • Constitution of 1793

    • Convention passed a new constitution with universal male suffrage

    • It delayed its adoption because of the ever worsening situation

  • Committee of Public Safety (CPS)

    • Set up by the Convention on April 6, 1793

    • Its purpose was defend the country from both domestic and foreign enemies through the use of terror

  • Commission of Twelve

    • Created by the Girondins on May 19, 1793

    • It was designed to investigate the radical elements of the Paris Commune and sections

    • Many radicals were arrested by the Commission


Background to the Terror

  • New radical leaders

    • Helped to shift the Revolution into more dangerous territory

  • Jean-Paul Marat (17431793)

    • Did not admire Great Britain

    • Opposed moderates

    • Edited The Friend of the People

    • On July 13, 1793, he was assassinated by Girondin Charlotte Corday

    • She claimed she killed one man to save 100,000

    • This event sparked anti-Girondist attacks throughout Paris


  • Death of Marat

    • Jacques-Louis David (1793)


Background to the Terror

  • Georges-Jacques Danton (17591794)

    • Popular political leader

    • Member of the CPS

    • Wearied of the Terror

  • Maximilien Robespierre (17581794)

    • Trained as a lawyer

    • Became president of the National Convention

    • Member of the CPS

    • Enlarged the Terror

  • Things seemed to fall apart both from outside and within France


Background to the Terror

  • The war continued to worsen for the French

    • French forces were pushed out of the Austrian Netherlands

    • The revolt in the Vende continued on

    • Spanish forces crossed over the Pyrenees and Sardinian troops crossed the Alps into France

    • The British also installed a naval blockade of France

    • Toulon fell to the British

  • Leve en Masse (August 23, 1793)

    • All able-bodied men in France between the ages of 18-25 were to prepare for war

    • It also mobilized the French people to help with the war effort


Background to the Terror

  • By September 1794, the Republican Army had over 1.1 million soldiers

    • This was the largest army seen in Europe to date

    • This army was then able to turn the war to the advantage of the French

  • CPS faced sabotage from the political left and right

    • Need for absolute control

    • The Mountain allies with Parisian artisans

    • Rebellions in Lyons, Bordeaux, and Marseilles

    • CPS rounds up suspects in the countryside


  • Reign of Terror


Reign of Terror

  • On September 5, 1793, mass demonstrations broke out again in Paris

    • Wanted greater measures against the counter-revolution

    • Including the arrest of all counter-revolutionaries and the creation of a internal Revolutionary Army to put down any revolts

  • Terror is the order of the day

    • Announced by the Committee

    • Would be willing to use whatever means necessary to end the counter-revolutionary movement inside France

    • This starts the Reign of Terror

    • From this point on, the Committee is the one running the country


Reign of Terror

  • One of the first executed was Marie Antoinette

    • Even though there were a number of attempts to help her escape, she never once went along with them

  • She was brought to trial on October 14, 1793

    • The charges included incest with her son, sending military information to the enemy, and being personally responsible for the death of the Swiss Guards on August 10, 1792

  • The Widow Capet was found guilty the next day

    • She was executed by the guillotine on October 16, 1793


  • Execution of Marie Antoinette (October 16, 1793)


Reign of Terror

  • Over the next few months, thousands were arrested and executed at the guillotine

    • By the end of the Terror, over 100,000 were officially arrested

    • Modern estimates are around 300,000

    • Over 16,000 were executed officially

    • 3,000 in Paris alone

    • Many historians believe that the actual death total was as high as 40,000-50,000

  • The areas hit hardest were those where the counter-revolution was located


Reign of Terror

  • At the beginning, the executions were many held in the cities

  • In Lyons alone, almost 2,000 were killed

    • At one point, the Committees agent in the city believe the executions were not going fast enough so he ordered executions by cannon as well

  • By 1794, the Terror moved into the provinces

    • There were no class boundaries: 6% of those executed were clergy, 8% nobility, 15% middle class, and 70% peasants and working class

    • The peasants were mainly accused of hoarding bread and avoiding the draft


Reign of Terror

  • In the city of Nantes, those found guilty were placed in barges in the middle of the Loire River

    • In the middle of the night, men would punch open trapdoors in the boats causing them to sink

    • Over 2,000 died this way with another 3,000 dying of disease in overcrowded prisons

  • In Bordeaux, some of the worst atrocities took place

    • One woman was forced to sit under the blade of a guillotine with blood dripping on her for hours before she was executed just because she cried over her husbands death


Reign of Terror

  • The executions took on a festival atmosphere

    • Tens of thousands would witness them with cries of la guillotine!

    • Executions became known as the red mass with the guillotine as the altar

    • Bets would be taken on the order of who would be executed first

  • Many lived in fear of being brought up on charges

  • Others became sick of all the death

    • Madame Roland said The time as come which was foretold when the people would ask for bread and be given corpses


  • It is dreadful but necessary

    • Cest affreux mais ncessaire

    • From the Journal d'Autre Monde (1794)


Rule of the CPS

  • The CPS did pass some beneficial laws

    • Many of the laws it passed were designed to protect the people, specifically the sans-culottes

    • Published all laws and decrees made by the government (Bulletin des loix)

    • It limited the amount of gold exported

    • All foreign specie and paper money was confiscated and replaced with assignats

    • Set the maximum price for bread and other necessities (loi du maximum gnral)

    • Ended what was left of the manorial system

    • Created extensive public schools


  • Fashion of the French Revolution


Culture of the Revolution

  • Revolution had impact on all aspects of life

  • Fashion was guided strongly by those in power

    • Prior to the Revolution, fashioned was focused on the elite and privileged

    • During the radical revolution, fashion mimicked the clothing of the sans-culottes

    • People would wear the Red Cap of Liberty

  • Hairstyles changed

    • Instead of long powdered hair, encouraged short hair

    • Short hair is the only one which is suited to republicans: being simple, economical and requiring little time, it is care-free and so assures the independence of a person; it bears witness to a mind given to reflection, courageous enough to defy fashion.


Culture of the Revolution

  • Everything associated with the ancien regime was to be destroyed and a new civilization built on top of it

  • How you addressed a person was changed

    • No longer would a person be addressed as monsieur or madame

    • Now they were to be addressed as Citizen

  • In the arts, there were no longer to be any religious images

    • Artwork now focused on more patriotic images

    • This included personifying ideas such as virtue, republic, liberty

    • It also included images of battle and heroism, with people dying to save the Republic


  • Revolution playing cards with the king and queen replaced with the elements La Terre and LAir


Revolutionary Calendar

  • Revolutionary Calendar

    • The purpose was to rid France of every aspect of Christianity including the Gregorian calendar

    • It was adopted on October 5, 1793

  • There would still be twelve months

    • Months had new names based on nature

    • They were all 30 days long

    • Weeks (dcades) were divided up into ten day slots instead of seven

    • The days were also renamed as well: primidi (first day), duodi (second day), tridi (third day), etc.

    • The new year would start on the Autumnal Equinox


Revolutionary Calendar

  • Remaining five days would be holidays

    • They were to be known as the sans-culottides

    • Devoted to festivals representing the Revolutionary ideals

  • In leap years, an extra day known as Fraciade was put in

    • Be a celebration of a Revolution four years in the making

  • Not everyone was enamored with the new calendar

    • Many peasants and workers were upset

    • Others did not like the removal of Sundays and saints days

  • The British enjoyed making fun of the new calendar

    • They translated the months as Wheezy, Sneezy and Freezy; Slippy, Drippy and Nippy; Showery, Flowery and Bowery; Wheaty, Heaty and Sweety


Dechristianization

  • Dechristianization of France

    • All of these efforts were part of a greater effort to dechristianize France

    • This had been going on since the passage of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy

  • During the Reign of Terror, there were even greater moves to rid the country of Christianity

    • Many pushed for a culte de la Raison (Cult of Reason)

    • Demonstrations broke out to bring an end to Christianity

    • Notre Dame cathedral was rechristened the Temple of Reason

    • Convention outlawed Catholic mass on November 24, 1793

    • In its place, the Cult of Reason was considered the official religion


  • Thermidor


Last Days of the Terror

  • During the spring of 1794, the CPS focused its attention on all dissenting groups

    • In March, many of the radicals (enrages) in Paris were executed

    • In April the more conservative members of the Mountain were executed as well, including Danton

    • Robespierre surrounded himself with like-minded individuals under the guise of national security

  • Also that spring the Revolutionary Army was winning

    • The army now had 800,000 men

    • The Coalition was also distracted by the Kociuszko Uprising in Poland

    • The army was preparing for an all out invasion of the Netherlands to occur that winter


Last Days of the Terror

  • In Paris, Robespierre continued to assert his power

  • On May 7, 1794, he created the Cult of the Supreme Being

    • This was a blend of Deism and republican values designed to replace the Cult of Reason

    • Not everyone was pleased with this change

    • It did not have the pageants or festivals associated with the Cult of Reason

    • Also, this new religion did not allow for other religions to exist

  • On June 8th, Robespierre held the Festival of the Supreme Being


  • Festival of the Supreme Being


Thermidorian Reaction

  • By this point, the need for the CPS was gone

    • The French military was now winning so there was no longer a need to protect the security of the nation

    • The food shortages and out of control inflation had ended

    • Even the revolt in the Vende had died down

  • The CPS also lost the support of those who had originally put them in power

    • Part of this had to do with the execution of the enrages and Dantonists

    • Part had to do with the forced Cult of the Supreme Being


Thermidorian Reaction

  • Law of 22 Prairial (June 10, 1794)

    • Passed by the CPS

    • This was also as the loi de la Grande Terreur

    • Limited a suspects ability to defend him/herself

    • Increased the number of crimes punishable by death

  • That month, over 1,300 were executed in Paris alone

  • With this, numerous rumors flew around the city of plots to overthrow Robespierre

    • Robespierre responded by addressing the Convention, threatening them with arrest


Thermidorian Reaction

  • Robespierres Arrest (July 27, 1794)

    • On 9 Thermidor, the National Convention with demands for his arrest

    • He was arrested later that day with four of his supporters

    • The next day, Robespierre was executed without trial

  • The purpose of the Reaction was clear

    • Now that the country was more stable, the Convention wanted to reassert its own power

    • Many believed that the Committee and the Paris Commune had taken too much power

    • The power would go back into the hands of the people


  • Execution of Robespierre (July 28, 1794)


Thermidorian Reaction

  • White Terror

    • This was followed with the systematic elimination of Jacobins throughout France

    • Jacobins were arrested and executed and Jacobin Clubs shut down

    • Ironically, 45 anti-Robespierrists were executed on July 27th but 104 Robespierrists were killed the next day by the same guillotine

  • Governmental policies took a more moderate leaning

    • Many members were Girondins who had survived the storm of the terror

    • Many of the policies were beneficial mainly to the middle-class


Thermidorian Reaction

  • The poor were still unhappy with the Reaction

    • A majority of their leaders had been killed

    • The Convention lifted all of the beneficial price controls implemented during the Terror

    • Inflation once again became severe

  • The winter of 1794-5 was harsh

    • By April 1795, the price of bread skyrocketed again to more than 2 livres a pound

    • New cries rose up for bread and relief from food shortages

    • Revolts broke out once again throughout France


Constitution of Year III

  • Working on a new constitution (summer 1795)

    • Constitution of Year I was deemed to radical

    • Democracy now was associated with the Terror and mob rule

    • Still wanted to embrace the ideals of the Enlightenment

    • The new constitution was still to be much more conservative

  • Constitution of Year III (August 22, 1795)

    • Executive power would be held by a new five-man Directory

    • Legislative power would be held by two councils

    • Council of 500 contained men over the age of 30 and had the power to write the laws

    • Council of Ancients contained 250 married or widowed men over the age of 40 and had the power to pass the laws


Constitution of Year III

  • In order to keep the councils fresh, one-third of the members of each council must retire each year

  • The aim of this set up was to avoid a dictatorship but prevent excessive democracy as well

  • The Constitution also changed voter eligibility

    • No longer was there universal male suffrage

    • Instead, eligibility was based on property ownership

  • The members of the new government were mainly Girondins

    • Mainly of the wealthy middle-class


  • Louis XVIII

    • (de jure 1795-1824)

    • (de facto 1814-1824)


Thermidorian Reaction

  • One of the greatest threats the Convention and the new Constitution faced was from the Royalists

  • Return of the migrs

    • Convention grated amnesty to those who fled France after May 1793

    • It was seen as proof of its more moderate temperament

    • This brought the hopes of a reestablished monarchy to some

  • Death of Louis XVII (June 8, 1795)

    • Louis XVIs son had died from tuberculosis

  • Many began to turn to Louis XVIs brother, the Comte de Provence, as their new king (Louis XVIII)


Royalist Unrest

  • Declaration of Verona (June 24, 1795)

    • Louis XVIII stated France must return to pre-Revolutionary status

    • This included a restoration of the Old Regime, returning all lands confiscated to their original owners, and the old manorial system

    • By making such a request, this ends any support for the restoration of the monarchy by a majority of the population

  • There was still enough support to cause significant unrest

    • The Royalists were also offended by the new constitution as they had been excluded from participating in the new government

    • In June 1795, a Royalist offensive broke out in northwest France which led to a new civil war in that region


Royalist Unrest

  • Royalist supporters looked for the perfect opportunity to attack the Convention

    • One of the groups they played to was the urban poor

    • By September 1795, the cost of living was 30 times higher than that in 1790 due to severe inflation

    • For example, sugar went up from 11 to 62 livres a pound

  • Economic conditions gave the Royalists what they needed

    • They could play upon the general unrest of the time for their own cause

    • Their plan: both counter-revolutionaries and migrs were to attack Paris directly


Royalist Unrest

  • Royalist forces landed in the Vende in September 1795

    • The forces included 3,000 migrs and British troops

    • The troops met up with other royalist forces and proceeded to march to the city of Paris

  • In Paris, the Royalists were agitating the situation

    • Blamed the Convention for the poor economic conditions

    • This led to a number of riots to break out throughout the city

  • On October 4, 1975, Convention forces under General Jacques-Franois Menou marched into Le Pellitiersection

    • This was where the heart of the rioting was taking place

    • He tried to negotiate with the rioters instead of disarming them

    • Menou was replaced by the Convention with Paul Barras

    • Barras appointed a young Brigadier-General Napolon Bonaparte to serve under him


  • Napolon Bonaparte

    • (1769-1821)


Napolon Bonaparte (1769-1821)

  • NapoleonediBuonaparte (1769-1821)

    • Born in Corsica to a minor noble family

    • Starting at the age of 10, received extensive military training

  • Napolon and the early Revolution

    • Napolon was fighting in Corsica

    • The fight there was not only between Revolutionaries and Royalists, but Corsican Nationalists as well

    • By 1792, he aligned himself with the Jacobins

  • Siege of Toulon (autumn 1793)

    • When he first made a name for himself

    • His artillery tactics helped to retake the city on December 19

    • During the battle, he was injured by a bayonet in the thigh


Napolon Bonaparte (1769-1821)

  • Promotion to Brigadier-General

    • Because of his actions at Toulon, he was promoted to Brigadier-General

    • He was also given the command of an Italian artillery in Nice

  • During the Thermidorian Reaction, Napolon fell out of favor

    • This was due to his association with Robespierres family

    • He was arrested for a short period of time

  • Napolon was then assigned to fight as part of the infantry in the Vende

    • He refused to do so because it was seen as a demotion

    • He claimed he was ill and required sick leave


Napolon Bonaparte (1769-1821)

  • When he returned, he asked for a field command

    • Instead was given a staff position in the Bureau of Topography

    • Napolon was miserable in this position

    • He was even removed from the list of active generals because he refused to go to the Vende

  • His next step was to travel to the Ottoman Empire

    • He was hoping to gain an artillery position with the Sultan

  • Napolon happened to be in Paris when he was approached by Barras

    • Barras had been one of the commanders at Toulon

    • Napolon was quick to take command on October 4, 1795


  • Journe of 13 Vendmiaire


13 Vendmiaire

  • Journe of 13 Vendmiaire (October 5, 1795)

    • Royalist forces began to march to the Tuileries to overthrow the Convention

  • The Royalists had over 40,000 troops

    • This included those forces marching into the city from the west and the sections in Paris

    • The Convention only had around 8,000

  • Earlier that morning, Napolon had sent for 40 cannons located outside of the city to aid his troops

    • This decision proved to be a key move because the cannons negated the numbers advantage the Royalists had


13 Vendmiaire

  • Between the artillery and the Patriots battalions, the Royalist forces were defeated in two hours

    • 19th century historian, Thomas Carlyle, said that Napolon defeated them with a whiff of grapeshot

  • Because of his successful command, Napolon was promoted to Gnral de Division

    • He was only 26 at the time

  • Law of 3 Brumaire (October 25, 1795)

    • Convention forbade all seditionists from holding public office

    • Now, the Royalists were no longer a threat to the Revolution


  • Paul Barras

    • Director

    • (1795-1799)


The Directory

  • The Directory first met on November 3, 1795

    • All five of the Directors chosen came from the Convention

    • Mix of Jacobins and moderates

  • Directors wanted to fix the chaos which always accompanies revolutions by a new social order

    • However they were to be unsuccessful

    • Faced discontent from both the left and the right

  • Most of the discontent was due to worsening economic conditions

    • The value of assignats had fallen down to 5% of its original value

    • 100 livres note could now be exchanged for no more than fifteen sous (20 sous = 1 livre)


Threat From the Left

  • Franois-Nol Gracchus Babeuf (1760-1797)

    • Supported many communist ideas

    • Wanted perfect equality among all the people of France including the abolition of private property and the equal distribution of food and goods to the population

    • Believed such change could only come about through violence

    • He created a new paper, Eclaireur du Peuple, ou le Dfenseur de Vingt-Cinq Millions d'Opprims

    • This paper reached thousands as it was sold on the streets of Paris

    • As the economic situation continued to worsen, more people were willing to listen to him

    • He was arrested and executed


  • Franois-Nol Gracchus Babeuf

    • (1760-1797)


Threat From the Right

  • In April 1797, elections were held for the two Councils

    • Conservatives and those against the Directory were able to gain a number of seats in both Councils

    • This meant that the councils now heavily favored moving back to the right

  • Turn towards conservatism

    • Council members debated whether or not to continue on with the republic as it was or go to a constitutional monarchy

    • Even two of the five Directors supported the idea of a constitutional monarchy

  • Radical Directors realized something had to be done

    • They turned to Napolon for help


  • French Revolutionary Wars


Military Successes

  • In 1795, both Spain and Prussia had already signed peace agreements with France

    • This ended their participation in the First Coalition

  • In the Vende, the revolt was finally brought to an end in March 1796

    • Estimates ranged from 40,000 to 250,000 dead, out of a population of around 800,000

  • In the spring of 1796, Napolon was placed in charge of the Army of Italy

    • He proceeded to push the Austrians out of northern Italy

    • His actions also allowed the local provinces to overthrown their old, and much hated, governments


Military Successes

  • In October, Napolon created the Cispadane Republic

    • This was made up of the provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio Emilia

    • Its capital was located in Milan

    • The main purpose of the Republic was to help organize troops for a new offensive by the Austrians

  • With his successes, money poured into the French treasury

    • This made him even more popular with the masses

    • The Directory finally had enough money to help fix the economic situation

    • Part of this included the creation of the franc to replace assignats in February 1797


Military Successes

  • On April 17, 1797, the Peace of Leoben was drafted

    • France received the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) and all lands west of the Rhine River

    • Austria received the city of Venice which had been captured by Napolon

  • The terms of the peace were not formalized until October 17, 1797 with the Treaty of Campo Formio

    • The delay was due to the domestic problems inside France at this time

    • The treaty marked the end of the First Coalition against France

  • The only major force against France at this point was Great Britain

    • Even they were suffering from the effects of the war and economic problems on top of it


  • Territories after the Treaty of Campo Formio


Political Crisis of 1797

  • As Napolon was considered a national hero, the three Jacobin Directors turned to him for help

    • Wanted to overthrow the conservative Councils

    • Napolon sent General Pierre-Franois-Charles Augereau along with a large contingent of troops to Paris

  • Coup dtat of 18 Fructidor IV (September 4, 1797)

    • Conservatives forcibly removed from their positions

  • Back to Jacobin-styled politics

    • Laws were enacted against migrs and their families

    • Freedom of the press was terminated

    • Nonjuring priests were once again prosecuted

    • All of this was done to protect the Revolution


  • Battle of the Pyramids


War in Egypt

  • Once Napolon turned his attention to Great Britain

    • Knew that France was not prepared for a naval battle against Britain nor the proposed invasion of Britain

  • Turn to Egypt

    • Egypt was under the control of the Ottoman Turks

    • If he could take Egypt, he could threaten British trade to India

  • The British fleet trapped Napolons forces in Egypt

    • At the Battle of the Nile, the British navy destroyed the French fleet and cut off the armys supply lines

  • Napolons expedition into Egypt angered many of Frances old enemies

    • Slowly, a Second Coalition was formed against France


War of the Second Coalition

  • By early 1799, France was at war with Great Britain, Austria and Russia

    • Russia joined as it had its own designs for the Middle East

  • Things did not go well for France

    • Russian troops invaded northern Italy

    • The Cisalpine Republic was destroyed

    • Austria began challenging the French in Germany as well

  • The Directory was forced to call a new leve en masse

    • Needed to provide enough troops for this new war

    • Riots broke out against the new draft


War of the Second Coalition

  • Many in France were upset with the turn of events

    • Specifically with the ever growing number of military defeats

  • Government began supporting more radical ideas

    • Jacobin papers once again began circulating

    • Forced loans were enacted against the wealthy members of society

  • Not everyone was pleased with the new changes

    • Many were fearful of a return to the Terror

  • In May 1799, AbbSieys was appointed as Director

    • He warned against returning to the radical ideas and mob rule

    • He was more than willing to take necessary action to prevent this from occurring again


30 Prairial VII

  • Coup of 30 Prairial VII (June 18, 1799 )

    • Small bloodless coup took place in the ranks of the Directors

    • A motion began in the Councils to have the other two radical members of the Directory removed

    • Replaced with more moderate and politically unknown men

    • Directors Sieys and Barras went along with this

  • By October, France was much more relaxed

    • The French army was successful at retaking Switzerland

    • Russia left the Coalition because it could not get along with Britain

    • The only place the military was not successful was in Egypt

    • Napolon placed command of the army under one of his subordinates and secretly returned back to France


  • French Republic and its Satellites (1798-1799)


18 Brumaire

  • Change to moderation

    • Sieys and his followers hoped to use Napolon to bring about a change in government

    • Wanted to prevent the radicals from again taking control

    • Wanted the Councils to put together a moderate commission to draft a new constitution

    • As part of this, Napolon would place troops conveniently around the city in case force was necessary

  • Some Councilmen knew there was a plan for a coup

    • They began spreading rumors of a Jacobin conspiracy to convert the two Councils into a national convention

    • Hope was to create a panic


18 Brumaire

  • Events of 18 Brumaire VIII (November 9, 1799)

    • Councils were moved to Chteau de Saint-Cloud just outside of Paris for their safety

    • Later that day, three of Directors resigned (Sieys, Barras, and Roger Ducos)

    • The other two refused; one was arrested but the other escaped

  • Some Councilmen suspected that there was no conspiracy and that there was a coup taking place

    • Instead they realized a coup was taking place

    • Began swearing an oath to uphold the Constitution of Year III


18 Brumaire

  • Napolon tried to calm the Council of 500

    • They called him a military dictator who was destroying the Constitution

    • Napolon responded with The Constitution! You yourselves have destroyed itIt no longer has the respect of anyone.

  • The councilors began calling for Napolons arrest

    • His own men had to carry him out of the meeting hall to protect him from the councilors

  • Lucien Bonaparte was the President of the Council of 500

    • Told the Council that the ones calling for Napolons arrest were armed and planning to assassinate Napolon

    • When the troops found out about it, they marched into the Chteau and arrested the dissenting councilors


18 Brumaire

  • Following this, the members of the Council of Ancients who were left voted out the Directory

    • First they suspended both Councils for three months and then voted out the Constitution of Year III

    • They then appointed a Legislative Assembly to begin drafting a new Constitution

  • Until a new constitution could be drafted, three provisional consuls were appointed

    • They were Napolon, Sieys, and Roger Ducos

  • This marks the end of the Directory Period and the end of the French Revolution


  • Napolon in front of the Council of 500


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