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LEC 14. Conifers (Coniferphyta). LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 14 Dr. Donald P. Althoff. Ferns & Club mosses. GYMNOSPERMS. Angiosperms. Seed-bearing. Vascular tissue. GYMNOSPERMS divisions. Coniferphyta. ______ widely distributed. Cycads. Ginkgophyta. Gnetophyta. ancient 1 sp.

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LEC 14

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Lec 14

LEC

14

Conifers (Coniferphyta)

LOCAL FLORA – Lecture 14

Dr. Donald P. Althoff


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Ferns & Club mosses

GYMNOSPERMS

Angiosperms

Seed-bearing

Vascular tissue


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GYMNOSPERMS divisions

Coniferphyta

______

widely

distributed

Cycads

Ginkgophyta

Gnetophyta

ancient

1 sp.

tropics

& sub-

tropics

“close”

to angio-

sperms


Cycads cycadophyta

Cycads = Cycadophyta

  • Only one species native to North America: Zamia pumila

  • Dioecious pollen (male) & seed cones (female) are separate plants  pollinated by _________, not wind

  • 10 genera, 140 species (not including palm trees which are angiosperms: monocots [Liliopsida])


Gingkoes ginkgophyta

Gingkoes = Ginkgophyta

  • Only one species present today:Ginkgo biloba

    (maidenhair tree)

  • Dioecious male & female (stink) trees

  • None native to NorthAmerica

  • 1 genera, 1 species


Gnetophytes gnetophyta

Gnetophytes = Gnetophyta

  • 12 species in North America: Ephedra

  • More closely related to angiosperms than any other gymnosperm

  • 3 genera, 70 species worldwide


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Nevada Jointfir

(Ephedranevadensis)

  • No “apparent” leaves…leaves are scale-like

  • Photosynthesis takes place in the _______

  • ________—but produce small cones

Flowering


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gnetophyte

Welwitschia mirabilis[African desert GYMNOSPERM]


Distinguishing characteristics of conifers

Distinguishing characteristics ofCONIFERS

  • “naked seeds”…borne on surface of cone scales or on stalks among leaves

  • All species are ________vs. Angiosperms with amix of woody & herbaceous)


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Kingdom

Division

Class

Order

Plantae

Coniferphyta

Pinopsida

Pinales

Families

Pinaceae

Cupressaceae

Taxaceae

3

1

2

pines, firs,

& spruces

cedars,

cypress,

junipers

yews


Family taxaceae

Family TAXACEAE

  • All “evergreen”

  • Monoecious and dioecious

  • Leaves spirally arranged

  • Pollen dispersal by ______

  • 3 genera, 7-10 species


Family cupressaceae

Family CUPRESSACEAE

  • All “evergreen”

  • Some monoecious, some dioecious

  • Leaves arranged spirally or in pairs (alternating at 900 angles or whorls)

  • Pollen dispersal by wind

  • 18 genera, 140 species


Family pinaceae

Family PINACEAE

  • _______________________

  • Usually in temperate climates

  • All “evergreen” exceptLarix&Pseudolarix

  • Monoecious

  • Needle-like leaves

  • Female cones ________ than male cones

  • Pollen dispersal by ______

  • 11 genera, 220-250 species


Family pinaceae vegetative morphology

Family PINACEAE: Vegetative Morphology

Know for final

needle leaf

long shoot


Family pinaceae spur shoot fascicle

Family PINACEAE: Spur Shoot & Fascicle

needle leaf

sheath

scale leaf

_______

________________________


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Pines

Male & Female Gametophyte Systems

Thus, monecious—even on same branch


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________________

FEMALE CONE - OVULATE

3 yr

2 yr

1 yr

 ________________

MALE CONE – STAMINATE…pollen source


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REGIONAL CONIFERS

(partial listing)

Classification

DivisionConiferophya

Class Pinopsida

OrderPinales

Family Pinaceae “Pine”

Cupressaceae – “Cypress”

  • Norway spruce (Picea abies)

  • Colorado (blue) spruce (Picea pungens)

  • White spruce(Picea glauca)

  • Virginia (scrub) pine (Pinusvirginiana)

  • White pine (Pinus strobus)

  • Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata)

  • Red pine (Pinus resinosa)

  • Pitch pine (Pinus ridiga)

  • Scotch (Scots) pine (Pinus sylvestris)

  • Jack pine (Pinus banksiana)*

  • Eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis)

  • Eastern larch (Tamarack) (Larix laricina)

  • Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum)

  • Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana)

  • Eastern arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis)

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

C

P

P

P

P

P

C

C

C


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Needles per fascicle

3

1

5

2

E. Hemlock

& spruces

White pine

Virginia pine

Pitch pine


Regional pines partial listing

Know for final

Regional Pines(partial listing)

TYPICAL NEEDLES

PER FASCICLE (length)

  • Virginia (scrub) pine (Pinusvirginiana)

  • White pine (Pinus strobus)

  • Shortleaf pine(Pinus echinata)

  • Red pine (Pinus resinosa)

  • Pitch pine (Pinus ridiga)

  • Scotch (Scots) pine (Pinus sylvestris)

  • Jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

2 (<3 in.)

5 (3-5 in.)

2 (3-8 in.)

2 (3-8 in.)

3 (3-5 in.)

2 (<3 in.)

2 (3/4-3 in.)


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Lycopodiophyta

Pterophyta

Ferns & Club mosses

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

Seed-bearing

Vascular tissue


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Kingdom

Division

Class

Order

Plantae

Lycopodiophyta

Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiales

Know for final

Family

Lycopodiaceae – “the club mosses”

1

Ground Pine

Lycopodium dendroideum


Ground pine may indicate

Ground Pine may indicate

  • Cool ______________ climates

  • Fresh & moist soils

  • _______________ soils

  • Compacted soils

  • Also….

  • Mid-seral stage species (10-30 yr oldstands)


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