The wars of religion
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The Wars of Religion. 7. science & philosophy vs sin, death, devil magic, the occult, demons witch hunts 16-17th c. sabbats, orgies, cannibalism Why the witch panics of the 16-17th c.?. roots of witchcraft: cunning folk single, widowed, old women belief in magic: marks of the devil

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The Wars of Religion

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The wars of religion

The Wars of Religion

  • 7


The wars of religion

  • science & philosophy vs sin, death, devil

  • magic, the occult, demons

  • witch hunts 16-17th c.

  • sabbats, orgies, cannibalism

  • Why the witch panics of the 16-17th c.?


The wars of religion

  • roots of witchcraft:

    • cunning folk

      • single, widowed, old women

  • belief in magic:

  • marks of the devil

  • old, poor, female


  • The wars of religion

    • Gender--women

      • 80%

      • exceptions

      • misogyny

      • “special powers” & wives as “outsiders”

      • midwives

      • dunking stool

      • Why did witch hunts end in 17th c.?


    The wars of religion

    • 1533-1603

    • Queen of England and Ireland (1558-1603)

    • Edward VI

    • Mary I


    The wars of religion

    • Mother Anne Boleyn

    • queen at 25 years--ruled 45 years

    • Glorianna, Good Queen Bess, the Virgin Queen

    • foundation for world empire

    • English Renaissance

    • Background:


    The wars of religion

    • motto “video et traces”

    • Economy:

      • population, inflation, poor laws, wool trade

      • East India Company, explorers

    • divine right of rule & Star Chamber

    • Religion:

      • Sir William Cecil 1559-1563

      • politique


    The wars of religion

    • Anglican Church

      • No religious extremism

      • 1559 Act of Supremacy

    • Anglican Protestantism

      • 1559 Act of Uniformity and the Book of Common Prayer

      • Thirty-nine Articles


    The wars of religion

    • Challenges to her rule:

      • Catholics & Jesuits

      • Puritans

        • 2 complaints

        • purify it of “popery”

        • authority

        • presbyterians vs congregationalists

        • Conventicle Act of 1593


    Government

    Government

    • Privy Council & Parliament

    • capable ministers

      • William Cecil

      • Sir Francis Walsingham as Secretary of State “keeper of secrets”

        • spymaster

      • 1586 law

  • Robert Dudley

  • marriage status as diplomacy


  • Foreign policy

    Foreign Policy

    • due to persecution of continental protestants

      • France

        • 1572 Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre of Huguenots

      • Dutch Protestants

        • 1567 Duke of Alba

  • 1570 Pope Pius V


  • The wars of religion

    • Sea Beggars

    • 1570’s English pirates--John Hawkins and Francis Drake

      • 1577-1580 Drake and Golden Hind circumnavigate the globe

  • 1585 war against Spain in support of Dutch

    • London-Antwerp trade


  • The wars of religion

    • 1588 Spanish Armada

    • 130 ships w. 25,000 men

    • Armada defeat led to:

    • final thoughts about Elizabeth:


    Spanish power

    Spanish Power

    • 1556

    • 1588 decline (Armada defeat)

    • America’s wealth:

    • 1571 Battle of Lepanto

      • Don John of Austria

  • Portugal


  • Early life

    Early Life

    • 1527-1598

    • Background:


    Ruling style

    Ruling Style

    • the Escorial

    • reclusive “king of paper”

    • “prudent king”

    • 1557 defeat of France

      • 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

    • reign characterized by:


    Marriages

    Marriages

    • Maria of Portugal

      • Don Carlos (1535-1568)

  • Mary I Tudor of England

  • Elizabeth Valois of France (2 daughters)

  • Anna of Austria (5 children)

    • Philip III (1598-1621)


  • The wars of religion

    • 1566-1648

    • 17 provinces

      • north--United Provinces--Protestant

      • south--Spanish Netherlands--Catholic

  • Calvinism 1555 Antwerp

    • anti-Catholic iconoclasm


  • The wars of religion

    • Margaret of Parma

      • Cardinal Granville

      • heresy laws

    • Dutch towns

      • 1564-1565

    • Iconoclastic Fury

      • Protestant Resistance Theory


    Duke of alba

    Duke of Alba

    • 1567

    • 10,000 troops

    • Council of Troubles

    • (Council of Blood)

    • taxes led to resentment


    William of orange the silent

    William of Orange (the Silent)

    • 1533-1584

    • Prince of Orange

    • stadtholder

    • resistance leader

    • Count of Egmont

    • fled to Germany


    The wars of religion

    • Return of William 1568-1571

    • 1572 Sea Beggars

    • 1574 in Leiden:

    • 1576 Spanish Fury

    • resulted in:

    • 1579 Union of Utrecht

    • 1580 outlaw and Apologie (1581)

    • 1584 assassination in Delft


    The wars of religion

    • southern provinces

    • 1588 Armada to England

    • 1592

    • religious toleration

    • 1596

    • 1598

    • 1648 Peace of Westphalia


    Catherine de medici

    Catherine de’Medici

    • 1519-1589

    • Machiavelli

    • Popes Leo X and Clement VI

    • kidnapped

    • marriage to Henri II

    • 10 children (7 survive)

    • outlives all but Henri III


    Accident

    Accident

    • creates a power vacuum

    • 1559 Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

    • Philip II and Elizabeth Valois

    • 1559 tournament to tragedy

    • power shifts back to Spain


    Religious wars

    Religious Wars

    • 8 civil wars--1562-1598

      • Guise vs. Valois

      • Catholic vs. Huguenot


    Wars part i

    Wars Part I

    • First 3 wars had same script:

    • #1 1562-1563

      • Massacre of Vassey

  • #2 1567-1568

  • #3 1568-1570

    • Guise ally with Spain

    • Guise see Mary Stuart as political tool


  • The wars of religion

    • Peace of St. Germain

    • favors Huguenots

    • Coligny returns to court (seen as moderate)

    • political marriage of Marguerite to Henry of Navarre as “first prince of the blood”

    • Catholic tension (Paris)

      • Protestant rhetoric (resistance theory)

      • economic tension


    St bartholomew s day massacre 1572

    St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)

    • Paris wedding of August 17, 1572

    • August 22 Coligney wounded

    • preemptive strike August 24

    • Henry Navarre “converts”

    • War #4 1572-1573 La Rochelle resists/siege

    • Charles dies 1574/ Henri III crowned

    • 1576 Henri Bourbon escapes--War #5


    The wars of religion

    • Catholic League

    • War #6 1577

    • War #7 1580

    • Catherine allies with Guise

    • Henri III becomes anti-Guise


    War 8 war of the three henries

    War #8 War of the Three Henries

    • most important 1584-1589

    • Henri III (moderate Catholic & politique)

    • Henry of Navarre as heir:

    • Henry of Guise/Catholic League

      • Christmas Eve 1588 assassination

  • Henri III allies with Henry of Navarre

    • July 1589 assassination of Henri III


  • Henri iv bourbon dynasty

    Henri IV Bourbon Dynasty

    • 1589-1598 Catholic League Wars

    • 1593

      • Henry’s “perilous leap” and “Paris is worth a mass” conversion

      • politique

  • 1594 Henry enters Paris


  • The wars of religion

    • Philip dies in 1598

    • peace with Pope--son raised Catholic (Louis XIII)

    • 1598 Edict of Nantes:

      • what, who, where, why

  • 1599 annulment and marriage to???????

    • Marie de Medicis--son Louis XIII


  • Henri iv as king

    Henri IV as King

    • France’s best king

    • “chicken in every pot”

      • economic recovery and the Duke of Sully

        • mercantilism

    • taxes used for:

      • Paulette tax

    • 1610 assassination of Henry IV


    Preconditions

    Preconditions

    • Fragmented Germany

    • religious tensions

      • Peace of Augsburg 1555

      • problem:

      • Palatine elector

      • Spain:

      • Catholic League

      • Protestant Union


    4 phases of the war

    4 Phases of the War

    • Bohemian--1618-1625

    • Danish--1625-1630

    • Swedish--1631-1634

    • French--1635-1648


    Bohemian phase

    Bohemian Phase

    • 1618-1625 (Bohemia is part of Austria Empire)

    • Ferdinand of Styria (Austria) becomes emperor Ferdinand II

    • “defenestration of Prague”

    • Palatinate elector (Calvinist) becomes king of Bohemia as Frederick V (“winter king”)

    • Protestant help

    • Catholic Prince of Bavaria

    • Battle of White Mountain

    • motive:


    Danish phase

    Danish Phase

    • 1625-1630

    • motives:

    • Lutheran king Christian IV

    • Dutch and English help

    • France

    • General Albrecht von Wallenstein

    • Edict of Restitution 1629

    • Treaty of Lubeck 1629


    Swedish phase

    Swedish Phase

    • 1631-1634

    • England, Netherlands, France

    • Cardinal Richelieu

    • GustavusAdolphus

    • motives:

    • Battle of Breitenfeld 1631

    • Battle of Lutzen 1632

    • von Wallenstein


    French phase

    French phase

    • 1635-1648

    • most devastating phase

    • motives:

    • Cardinal Richelieu

    • German states become pawns


    Treaty of westphalia

    Treaty of Westphalia

    • 1648

    • rescinds Edict of Restitution

    • Peace of Augsburg reasserted

    • Calvinists:

    • Bohemia:

    • Switzerland:

    • United Provinces:

    • German states: staatensystem (1870)


    The wars of religion

    • Brandenburg-Prussia

    • Austria

    • Sweden

    • France and Spain (1659)

    • German population

    • “reasons of state” vs religious reasons for war


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