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农药面源污染控制技术与管理对策 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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农药面源污染控制技术与管理对策. 卜元卿 单正军 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所 国家环境保护农药环境评价与污染控制重点实验室 江苏 南京. 内容提要. 化学农药环境污染控制技术 农药替代防治技术 农药环境安全性评价技术 农药生态风险评价技术 农药使用环境污染控制与消减技术 农药环境安全管理现状与对策建议 农药管理相关的国际政策 我国 农药环境安全管理 现状 农药 使用 环境安全管理对策建议 农药减量使用环境污染控制与管理技术示范. 化学农药使用带来的面源污染问题.

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农药面源污染控制技术与管理对策

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1.



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FAO Inter Country Programme for the Development and Application ofIntegrated Pest ManagementIPM) in Rice in South and South East Asia.

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IPM

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WHOFAD


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2014/11/3

18



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25


2

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2.1

2.2

2.3


2.1 International Policy on Pesticide Management

International instruments

  • Stockholm Convention (Persistent Organic Pollutants)

  • Rotterdam Convention (Prior Informed Consent) PIC

  • International Code of Conduct on Distribution and Use of Pesticides

  • CODEX Alimentarius (pesticide residues) CODEX

  • International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)

  • ILO (Safety in the use of chemicals at work)

  • Others: Montreal protocol, GHS, SAICM GHSSAICM

    Trade requirements for agricultural produce

  • MRLs

  • GAP (public and private)

27


POPs

UNEP1998~200035POPs

2001522-23,90POPs19871992

2004517

20041111


POPs

.

Aldrin Dieldrin

Endrin DDT

Chlordane Toxaphene

Mirex Hexachlobenzene

Heptachlor PCBs

PCDDs) (PCDFs

-gamma-HCH)

-alpha-HCH

- beta-HCH

Chlordecone

Penchlorol


POPs

30

* POPs


POPs


POPs

DDTDDDDDE -HCH-HCH-HCH-HCH

32


SSDVFIV


POPs

34


POPs

200472009POPs

POPs


PIC


PIC

1999824

  • 5090

  • 2004224

  • 200412292005620

  • 120

  • PIC

37


  • 43

    • 32 4

    • 11



1985FAO231989

40


199982452003125

  • 20046305

  • 2005115

  • 2007115


2.2

DDT 1939P.Muller 1874O.ZeidlerP.Muller1948

1947

1962R.Carson

1972

1977DDT

1982

1983DDT

199758216

20012007

2010201111


1

2

3

4


-


-

Log pow>3




199

  • HCHDDTcamphechlor(dibromochloropane)(chlordimeform)(EDB)(nitrofen)(aldrin),(dieldrin)(Mercurycompounds)(arsena)(acetate)fluoroacetamide)(gliftor)(tetramine)sodiumfluoroacetate)(silatrane)

POPS12

  • DDT,

    5

  • 11

  • 203


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15862011

  • 22;()

  • 20111031()1();20131031


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3.





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--

1--0.5 m20.4m10

2120m3/d800m500m

345000 m28m2m

41kg15/5120m3/d


()

  • 30%


  • 50%


10010%

10


1000m25000m2

40%50%~60%



  • Login