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Cigarette Smoke and Disease. Epidemiological Evidence Experimental Evidence Early Death. Proving the links between smoking and lung disease. Serious widespread smoking did not start until the second half of the 20 th century. In the 1950’s there was a lung cancer epidemic.

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Cigarette smoke and disease

Cigarette Smoke and Disease

Epidemiological Evidence

Experimental Evidence

Early Death


Proving the links between smoking and lung disease
Proving the links between smoking and lung disease

  • Serious widespread smoking did not start until the second half of the 20th century.

  • In the 1950’s there was a lung cancer epidemic.

  • There are now over 35,000 deaths per year from lung cancer.

  • In general, 50% of smokers die from a smoking related disease.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • This is where chronic bronchitis and emphysema occur at the same time.

  • The disease is responsible for 30,000+ deaths a year in the UK.

  • It is very rare in non-smokers.

  • 98% of people with emphysema are smokers!!!


Some more statistics
Some more statistics

  • Smokers are 18 time more likely to develop lung cancer than non-smokers.

  • 25% of smokers die of lung cancer.

  • It takes ten years for lungs to recover after a long period of smoking.

  • One third of all cancer deaths are a direct result of smoking.



Experimental evidence
Experimental Evidence

  • Dogs were used!

  • Mice were used!

  • Vital research that should save lots of human lives!


The dog experiments
The Dog Experiments

  • One group of dogs were made to smoke filtered cigarettes.

  • They did not get lung cancer but did produce cancerous cells in the lining of their airways and mouths.

  • One group of dogs were made to smoke filter-less cigarettes.

  • They did get lung cancer.


The smoking machine experiments
The Smoking Machine Experiments

  • Smoking machines extracted the chemicals in smoke.

  • Carcinogens and co-carcinogens were found in the tar.

  • When the tar was rubbed on the back of a mouse. The skin formed cancerous cells!!!


The trends of smoking

The Trends of Smoking

Developed world?

Developing world?


Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis

A cardiovascular disease


Atherosclerosis1
Atherosclerosis

  • This is where too much cholesterol has been taken and is stored in the arteries causing them to narrow.

  • If an artery to the heart is blocked a heart attack could occur.

  • If an artery to the brain is blocked then a stroke could occur.


…more!

  • Cholesterol travels in packages called lipoproteins.

  • There are low density lipoproteins that deliver cholesterol around the body.

  • There are high density lipoproteins that remove cholesterol from the blood stream.

  • Cholesterol is essential but in the right amounts!!


I ve done enough
I’ve done enough!

  • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) – What are the three forms?

  • Stroke – Why do they occur? What happens to a person having a stroke?

  • SaQ 14.4


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