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Technology Research in India. A Case Study of Microsoft Research India. Kentaro Toyama, PhD Assistant Managing Director Microsoft Research India Presentation to Technology Management Program George Mason University May 23, 2007 – Bangalore. Outline. India Microsoft Research

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Technology Research in India

A Case Study of Microsoft Research India

Kentaro Toyama, PhD

Assistant Managing Director

Microsoft Research India

Presentation to Technology Management Program George Mason University

May 23, 2007 – Bangalore


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Outline

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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Outline

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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India

People

  • ~1.1 billion people

    • Over half under 25 years old

  • 22 languages

  • Annual incomes $100-$100M+

  • 28 states

    Area

  • ~1/3 the area of United States

    Technology

  • ~20M PCs, installed base

  • ~140M mobile subscriptions

    • +7M each month

Roads in India

Sources: CIA Factbook, TRAI, CNN


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India, a Personal View

My first trip to India (2004)


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India, a Personal View

People

  • ~1.1 billion people

    • Over half under 25 years old

  • 22 official languages

  • Annual incomes $100-$100M+

  • 28 states

    Area

  • ~1/3 the area of United States

    Technology

  • ~20M PCs, installed base

  • ~140M mobile subscriptions

    • +7M each month

but, power held by few

tremendous energy and optimism

incredible diversity, EM microcosm

reminiscent of European Union

impact of weather (ubiquity of agriculture)

huge interest in PCs, by everyone

mobiles, mobiles, everywhere

Huge potential opportunity for Microsoft.

But, there are new challenges that

neither India nor Microsofthave ever faced before.


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Rural school in Chinhat, Uttar Pradesh


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Rural village with a VSAT Internet connection near Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh


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A small Internet café on a market street in a town near Bombay


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Infosys campus, Bangalore


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Outline

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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Microsoft Research

Established 1991

700+ full-time staff in 5 locations

  • Redmond; Beijing; Cambridge, UK; Mountain View, CA; Bangalore

    Over 60 computer-science research areas represented

  • Regular publications in major CS journals and conferences

    Contributions to Microsoft products

  • Ranging from development tools, data mining, photo editing, text-to-speech, grammar checking, spam filtering, etc.

    http://research.microsoft.com

MSR HQ in Redmond


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Microsoft Research Mission

Goals:

  • World-class academic research

  • Impact on Microsoft products and business groups

  • Collaborations with external institutions to further technology research worldwide

MSR HQ in Redmond


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MSR India Mission

Goals:

  • World-class academic research

  • Impact on Microsoft products and business groups

  • Collaborations with external institutions to further technology researchin India, South Asia, and Emerging Markets

Microsoft Research India

In Sadashivnagar, Bangalore


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Outline

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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Microsoft in India

Six subsidiaries:

  • Sales & Marketing1990

  • Software Development1999

  • Technical Support2003

  • Consulting Services2004

  • Research2005

  • IT Support 2005


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MSR India at a Glance

  • Established January, 2005

  • Six research areas

    • Cryptography, Security & Algorithms

    • Digital Geographics

    • Mobility, Networks & Systems

    • Multilingual Systems

    • Rigorous Software Engineering

    • Technology for Emerging Markets

  • Currently ~50 full-time staff;

    large internship program

  • Collaborations with government, academia, industry, and NGOs

Microsoft Research India

In Sadashivnagar, Bangalore

http://research.microsoft.com/india


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People

Full-time staff total: 49

Technical staff total: 43

  • 20 with PhD (46%)

    • 5 PhD from India

    • 15 PhD from abroad

  • Location before joining:

    • India: 23 (53%)

    • Abroad: 20 (47%)

  • 6 women, 34 men (16% women)

    Competition: IBM, Yahoo!, Bell Labs, HP Labs, Google, Etc.

Group photo (January, 2006)


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Total internships in 2006: 81

To date: 122

Institutions represented (40+ total):

India

BITS Pilani

IIIT-Bangalore

IIIT-Hyderabad

IISc

IITs (Delhi, Madras, Bombay)

ISI Calcutta

Abroad

Carnegie Mellon

UC Berkeley

University of Washington

Georgia Tech

Harvard

Oxford

London School of Economics

New York University

University College London

Yale

Internships

Lab size over two years


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Conferences, Etc.

Conferences, workshops, and tutorials co-sponsored or co-organized by MSR India in 2006:

  • Wireless Networking Summit (WiNS) [April 2006, Goa]

    • 2 days, 80+ participants (Victor Bahl, Uday Desai, Mythreyee Ganapathy)

  • ICASSP Tutorial on “Text-Dependent Speaker Recognition” [May 2006, Toulouse]

    • 1 day (Amitav Das)

  • IEEE/ACM Int’l Conf. on ICT and Development (ICTD) [May 2006, Berkeley]

    • 2 days, 200+ participants (Raj Reddy, Anno Saxenian, Kentaro Toyama)

  • Cryptography summer school [May-Jun 2006, Bangalore]

    • 21 days, 80+ participants (Venkie, Vidya Natampally, Anandan)

  • Afternoon with Design[Aug 2006, Bangalore]

    • 1/2 day, 60+ participants (Archana Prasad)

  • Virtual Earth Academic Summit [Nov-Dec 2006, Redmond]

    • 2 days, 60+ participants (Gur Kimchi, Kentaro Toyama)

  • IJCAI Workshop on AI for ICT and Development[Jan 2007, Hyderabad]

    • 1 day, 20 participants (Kentaro Toyama, Rajesh Veeraraghavan, Krithi Ramamritham, Anupam Basu)

  • IJCAI Tutorial on Design in ICT and Development [Jan 2007, Hyderabad]

    • 1/2 day, 30 participants (Bernardine Dias, Rahul Tongia, Kentaro Toyama)

  • Part-of-Speech (POS) Tagset Workshop [Jan 2007, Bangalore]

    • 9 days, 20 participants (A Kumaran)

Key:

  • MSR sponsorship and co-organization

  • MSR researcher led


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Outline

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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Cryptography, Security, and Algorithms

Goals

Mathematical and

practical aspects of…

  • Cryptographic primitives

  • New paradigms for cryptanalysis protocols

  • System and code security

  • Algorithms

  • Error-correction problems in machine learning


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Fast Arithmetic for Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems

David Jao

S. Ramesh Raju

Venkie

Markov-Chain-based analysis of a number system tailored for faster elliptic curve arithmetic in cryptographic systems

  • History

    • Summer 2005: Early explorations

    • Early 2006: Refinement and verification

    • Fall 2006: Tech transfer

  • Transferred:

    • Arithmetic algorithms

    • Whiteboxing tool for digital rights management

Elliptic curve addition

Collaboration with Windows DRM


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Digital Geographics

Goals

Invent new technologies to support digital mapping and location-based services

Conduct research in…

  • Graphics

  • User interfaces

  • Spatial databases

  • Image processing

  • Visualization

  • Etc.

Auto-generated panoramic map

(Neeharika Adabala)


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Virtual India

Joseph Joy

and Virtual India

virtual team

Multilingual online map of Indian cities generated from Survey of India data.

  • History

    • Jan 2005: MoU signed with Ministry of Science & Technology

    • Jan 2006: Online prototype unveiled by Minister Kapil Sibal

    • Summer 2006: Tech transfer

  • Transferred:

    • Tile generation pipeline

    • Transliteration

  • Person transferred, also 

    • Udayan Khurana [Thapur Institute of Engineering and Technology]

      • (MSR intern  IDC employee)

Kannada and Hindi views of Bangalore

in Virtual India

Collaboration with Virtual Earth / Windows Live Local


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Mobility, Networks & Systems

Goals

To conduct research in networked systems:

  • Internet-scale systems

  • Distributed systems

  • Network protocols

  • Wireless networking

  • Mobile computing

  • Sensor networks

COMBINE: collaborative downloading


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Mobility, Networks & Systems

Sample Projects

Proximity Networking

  • SPACE: Lightweight Peer-to-Peer Trust

    • ACM HotNets 2006

  • COMBINE: Collaborative Downloading

    • IEEE HotMobile 2007 (to appear)

  • WiFiAds: Location-sensitive Advertising

    • IEEE HotMobile 2007 (to appear)

      Sensor Networks

  • SenSlide: Sensor System for Landslide Prediction

    • ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review, 2007 (to appear)

SPACE: establishing peer-to-peer trust


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Multilingual Systems

Goals

To develop seamless natural-language-neutral approaches in all aspects of linguistic computing

To help create an Indic-language research ecosystem

wikiBABEL project


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Glyphic

Phonemic

Intonation Studies

TTP

SQL Operators

wikiBabel

Comp. Corpus

MachineTranslation

Char-set Conversion

Summarization

Transliteration

Ontologies

POS Tags

Language Research

Text

Language Tools

Corpora Collection & Management

Multilingual Systems

Project Overview


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Rigorous Software Engineering

Vision

Improve productivity by bringing rigor to “software development in the large”

Look at Microsoft platform from the point of view of partners and customers, and conduct research to improve their productivity

RSE team, summer 2006


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Prasad Naldurg

Stephan Schwoon

Sriram Rajamani

John Lambert

Netra

Analysis tool for finding security flaws in access-control configurations

  • History

    • Fall 2005: Prototype developed

    • January 2006: Presented to TAB

    • Fall 2006: Tech transfer

  • Transferred:

    • Specification language

    • Analysis tool

    • Visualization tool

Netra schematic

Collaboration with Secure Windows Initiative


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Why India?

  • Cryptography

    • Extremely bright math students

  • Digital Geographics

    • Strong interest in mapping

  • Mobility, Networks, and Systems

    • E.g., Fastest growing mobile-phone market

  • Multilingual Systems

    • 22 national languages, multilingual speakers

  • Rigorous Software Engineering

    • E.g., world’s most advanced system integrators


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Outline

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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Technology for Emerging Markets

Goals

Social:

  • Understand (potential) technology users in emerging-market countries

    • E.g., urban middle-class

    • E.g., rural entrepreneurs

      Technical:

  • Identify applications of computing that support socio-economic development of poor communities worldwide

Sugarcane co-op member using

a mobile phone to check on

details of his harvest in Warana, Maharashtra


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Rural Microfinance and IT

Peri-Urban Internet Cafes

Technology for Emerging Markets

Can computers help existing structures for rural microfinance?

Study of Internet cafes in areas between urban and rural

Sample Projects

Aishwarya Lakshmi Ratan

MPA, International Development

Nimmi Rangaswamy

PhD, Sociology

MultiPoint for Education

Computers in Agriculture

Digital Study Hall

Experiments with computing and communication systems in agriculture

DVD exchange over postal service and TVs as display for rural education

Multiple mice to multiply the value of PCs in schools.

Udai Singh Pawar

MSc, Physics

Rajesh Veeraraghavan

MS, Economics and CS

Randy Wang

PhD, Computer Science

Preventative Healthcare

Participatory Development

IT and Microentrepreneurs

UIs without text for users who are illliterate and may never have seen a computer before

An analysis of ICT in development projects using the lens of post-colonial theory.

Information ecology of small businesses in developing markets

Indrani Medhi

MDes, Design

Jonathan Donner

PhD, Communications

Savita Bailur

PhD cand., Information Sys.


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Indrani Medhi

Aman Sagar

Kentaro Toyama

Text-Free UI

Identify design principles for designing UIs that allow non-literate, first-time computers user to gain value from their first interaction with a computer.

  • Group: Tech for Emerging Markets

  • Title: “Text-Free User Interfaces for Illiterate and Semi-Literate Users”

  • Authors: Indrani Medhi, Aman Sagar, Kentaro Toyama

  • Venue: IEEE/ACM First Int’l Conference on Information and Communication Technology and Develompent, UC Berkeley, May 2006.

Text-free user interface?

Selected for special issue of ITID: ICTD2006 Best Papers!


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Udai Singh Pawar

Joyojeet Pal

Rahul Gupta

Kentaro Toyama

MultiPoint

(was:

MultiMouse)

Multiple mice cheaply multiply the value of PCs in resource-constrained schools.

  • History

    • Summer 2005: ethnographic studies in rural Indian schools

    • Fall 2005: First prototype

    • 2006: Tech transfer

  • Transferred: paradigm and SDK

  • Dissemination through Imagine Cup 2007

MultiPoint user studies

Collaboration with Market Expansion Group and Education Core


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Outline

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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What the Press Says (1/3)

After the tech boom - what's India's next big thing?

  • “Following the dramatic success of India's IT services companies over the last decade, many industry watchers are now hungrily awaiting the country's next trick - to create a software or hardware giant along the lines of an Indian Google or an Indian Intel.”

    Steve Ranger, silicon.com, April, 2007

http://www.silicon.com/research/specialreports/insideindia/0,3800013641,39166051,00.htm


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What the Press Says (2/3)

India and Innovation at Davos

  • “The next round of outsourcing is outsourcing innovation. And here India is the center of the global economic universe. By language, training, education, and diasporadic disposition, India's role in the world economic is more brain-driven, service-driven and ultimately innovation driven. And India, chaotic though it may be, is free and democratic. You don't have an army of censors watching over the internet and blogs, as you do in China.”

    Bruce Nussbaum, BusinessWeek (Jan 20, 2006)

http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/NussbaumOnDesign/archives/2006/01/india_and_innov.html


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What the Press Says (3/3)

India an innovation giant? Yes!

  • “…innovation includes services, manufacturing processes, customer facing and back-end process in services.”

  • “To me, Bharati Airtel is the most innovative company of our times for the way it has created a successful business model. The company has outsourced everything but its customers, thus being able to offer mobile telephony at 10 paise a minute; nowhere in the world can you get such rates.”

  • S. Kapur, Business Standard, February 21, 2007

http://in.rediff.com/money/2007/feb/21guest.htm


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Firms with Labs in India


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Conclusion

India

Microsoft Research

Microsoft Research India

  • Overview

  • Research Groups

    Technology for Emerging Markets

    Beyond Microsoft


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Rajkumar Riots

Kannada film actor, Rajkumar passed away on April 12, 2006. He lived within several blocks of MSR India.

Fans and riff-raff rioted, imitating riots following his kidnapping in 2000.

Most building windows were broken.

No physical harm to lab members.

Building fully restored, thanks to insurance.


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Code4Bill Contest

The Prize: Write code for Bill Gates, reporting to his technical assistant for one year

Seven-month contest run by MS India DPE

  • Three rounds of puzzles and coding challenges online

  • Two rounds of interviews

  • Final round of presentations, winner selected by jury

  • 24,000 contestants

  • 19 in last round, all offered (and took) internships with Microsoft.

  • Four interned at MSR India.

    And, the winner is…

  • Abishek Kumarasubramanian

    • IIT-Madras

  • Earlier worked at MSR India as an intern

  • Currently working as an assistant researcher at MSR until visa issues clear

Abishek with Bill Gates’s then technical assistant,

Alex Gounares


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Thank you!

http://research.microsoft.com/india

Questions? [email protected]


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