Chapter 10
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Chapter 10. Sinusoidally Driven Oscillations. Question of Chapter 10. How do the characteristic frequencies generated in one object (say a piano string) excite vibrations in another object (say a sounding board)?. A Simple Driving System. Natural Frequency ( w o ).

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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Sinusoidally Driven Oscillations


Question of chapter 10

Question of Chapter 10

  • How do the characteristic frequencies generated in one object (say a piano string) excite vibrations in another object (say a sounding board)?


A simple driving system

A Simple Driving System


Natural frequency w o

Natural Frequency (wo)

  • If the board is a door, then the natural frequency is around 0.4 Hz.

  • If the system is driven at 0.4 Hz, large amplitudes result.

  • Smaller amplitudes result for driver frequency different from 0.4 Hz.


Actual motions

Actual motions

  • The door starts with complex motions (transient) that settle down to sinusoidal, no matter the motor rate.

  • The final frequency is always the driving frequency of the motor (w).

  • The amplitude of the oscillations depends on how far from the natural frequency the motor is.


Driving at various rates

Driving at Various Rates


Amplitude vs frequency

Natural Frequency

Amplitude vs. Frequency


W w o

w << wo

  • Motor frequency is far below the natural frequency (w << wo) door moves almost in step with motor.

  • Door moves toward motor when bands are stretched most.


W w o1

w < wo

  • Door lags behind the motor.


W w o2

w = wo

  • Door lags by one quarter cycle.


W w o3

w >> wo

  • Door lags by one-half cycle.


Summarizing

w/wo

Door Lags

<< 1

0

< 1

Small

= 1

¼-cycle

>> 1

½-cycle

Summarizing


Computer model

Computer Model

Click on the link and experiment


Nature of the transient

Nature of the Transient

  • Transients are reproducible

    • If crank starts in the same position, we get the same transient

  • Damped Harmonic Oscillations

    • Shown by changing the damping

    • Imagine the bottom of the door immersed in an oil bath

    • The amount of immersion gives the damping


Small damping

Small Damping


Heavier damping

Heavier Damping


Two part motion

Two Part Motion

  • Damped harmonic oscillation (transient) is at the natural frequency

  • Driven (steady state) oscillation is at the driver frequency


Driver frequency natural frequency

Driver Frequency = Natural Frequency


Damping and the steady state

Damping and the Steady State

  • As long as we are far from natural frequency, damping doesn’t affect the steady state.

  • Near the natural frequency, damping does have an effect.


Damping and the steady state1

Small damping

Amplitude

Large damping

Frequency

Damping and the Steady State

As damping is increased the height of the peak decreases


Trends with damping

Trends with Damping

  • As damping increases we expect the halving time to decrease ( )Oscillations die out quicker for larger damping.

  • As damping increases the maximum amplitude decreases ( )

  • Also notice W½ D.Larger damping means a broader curve.


Percentage bandwidth pbw

Percentage Bandwidth (PBW)

  • Range of frequencies for which the response is it least half the maximum amplitude.

  • Let N be the number of oscillations that the pendulum makes in T½.

  • Direct measurement yields

    PBW = 38.2/N measured in %


Example of pbw

Example of PBW

  • Imagine tuning an instrument by using a tuning fork (A 440) while playing A.

  • If you are not matching pitch, the tuning fork is not being driven at its natural frequency and the amplitude will be small.

  • Only at a frequency of 440 Hz will the amplitude of the tuning fork be large


Example of pbw continued

Example of PBW - continued

  • T½ = 5 sec (it takes about 5 seconds for the tuning fork to decay to half amplitude)

  • N = (440 Hz) (5 sec) = 2200 cycles

  • So when you get a good response from the tuning fork, you have found pitch to better than

    PBW = 38.2/2200 = 0.017%

    or 0.076 Hz!


Caution

Caution!

  • You must play long, sustained tones

  • Short “toots” will stimulate the transient which recall is at the natural frequency of the tuning fork (440 Hz)

    • Without the sustained driving force of the instrument, we will never get to the steady state and the tuning fork will ring due to the transient.

    • You will think the instrument is in pitch when it is not.


Systems with two natural modes

Systems with Two Natural Modes

  • Each mode has its own frequency, decay time, and shape.

  • The modes are always damped sinusoidal.

  • Superposition applies.


Simple two mass model

Simple Two Mass Model


Normal modes of two mass model chapter 6

Normal Modes of Two Mass Model (Chapter 6)

Let Mode 1 have a natural frequency of 10 Hz and Mode 2 a natural frequency of 17.32 Hz.


Driving point response function or resonance curve

17.32 Hz

10 Hz

Amplitude

Frequency

Driving Point Response Function or Resonance Curve


Frequencies between peaks

Frequencies Between Peaks

  • Mass one has a mode one component and should lag a half-cycle behind the driver(w > wo1)

  • Mass one also has a mode two component to its motion, and here the driving frequency is less than the natural frequency (w << wo2)

    • Mass one keeps in step with the driver

  • These conflicting tendencies account for the small amplitude here


New terms

New Terms

  • Driving Point Response Curve – measure the response at the mass being driven

  • Transfer Point Response Curve – measure the response at another mass in the system (not a driven mass)


Properties of a sinusoidally driven system

Properties of a Sinusoidally Driven System

  • At startup there is a transient that is made up of the damped sinusoids of all of the natural frequencies.

  • Once the transient is gone the steady state is at the driving frequency. When the driving frequency is close to one of the natural frequencies, the amplitude is a maximum and resembles that natural mode.


A tin tray

A Tin Tray

The tray is clamped at three places. Sensors ( )and drivers ( )are used as pairs in the locations indicated.


Response curves

Response Curves


General principles

General Principles

  • Sensor cannot pickup any mode whose nodal line runs through it.

    • Notice that Sensor 2 is on the centerline

    • It cannot pick up modes with nodal lines through the center, such as…


Sensor 2 is blind to

Sensor 2 is blind to…


Sensor 2 is very sensitive to

Sensor 2 is very sensitive to…


Drivers ability to excite modes

Drivers Ability to Excite Modes

  • If a driver falls on the nodal line of a mode, that mode will not be excited

  • If a driver falls between nodal lines of a mode, that mode will be excited


Steady state response

Steady State Response

  • Superposition of all the modes excited and their amplitudes at the detector positions.

    • Some modes may reinforce or cancel other modes.

  • Example – consider the modes on the next screen

    • Colored sections are deflected up at this time and the uncolored sections are deflected down

    • The vertical lines show where in the pattern of each we are for a particular position on the plate


Superposing two modes

Superposing Two Modes


Summary

Summary

  • Altering the location of either the driver or the detector will greatly alter what the transfer response curve will be.

  • Altering the driver frequency will also change the response.


Three cases presented

Three Cases Presented

  • Deflections of the same sign (giving a larger deflection)Add

  • Deflections of opposite sign (canceling each other out)Subtract

  • Deflection of one mode lined up with the node of the other (deflection due to one mode only)Single


The g 4 phantom at g 3

The G4 Phantom at G3

196, 392, 588, 784, 980, 1176, …

Depress G3 slowly

Press & release G4

392, 784, 1176, 1568, 1960, 2352, …


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