托福阅读插空题的解题技巧. 主讲人：吴霜. 两种技巧. 1. 指代. 2. 逻辑关系. 指示代词. 定义： 插入句开头用一个指示代词 代替 出前文已经出现过的一些信息，从而达到简化语言的目的。 做法： 利用指代词后面的内容在找前文找指代词所指代的具体内容。. 指示代词： this.
Paragraph 5: Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the fossils they contained, he could also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear in more ancient sediments, while others begin to be seen as the strata become more recent. █By following the fossils, Smith was able to put all the strata of England's earth into relative temporal sequence. █About the same time, Georges Cuvier made the same discovery while studying the rocks around Paris. █Soon it was realized that this principle of faunal (animal) succession was valid not only in England or France but virtually everywhere. █It was actually a principle of floral succession as well, because plants showed the same transformation through time as did fauna. Limestone may be found in the Cambrian or—300 million years later—in the Jurassic strata, but a trilobite—the ubiquitous marine arthropod that had its birth in the Cambrian—will never be found in Jurassic strata, nor a dinosaur in the Cambrian.
The findings of these geologists inspired others to examine the rock and fossil records in different parts of the world．
Paragraph 6: The diffusion of agriculture and later of iron was accompanied by a great movement of people who may have carried these innovations. These people probably originated in eastern Nigeria. ■Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara. ■They spoke a language, proto-Bantu (“Bantu” means “the people”), which is the parent tongue of a language of a large number of Bantu languages still spoken throughout sub-Sahara Africa. Why and how these people spread out into central and southern Africa remains a mystery, but archaeologists believe that their iron weapons allowed them to conquer their hunting-gathering opponents, who still used stone implements. ■Still, the process is uncertain, and peaceful migration—or simply rapid demographic growth—may have also caused the Bantu explosion. ■
These people had a significant linguistic impact on the continent as well.
Paragraph 2: Outflow channels are probably relics of catastrophic flooding on Mars long ago. ■They appear only in equatorial regions and generally do not form extensive interconnected networks. ■Instead, they are probably the paths taken by huge volumes of water draining from the southern highlands into the northern plains. ■The onrushing water arising from these flash floods likely also formed the odd teardrop-shaped “islands” (resembling the miniature versions seen in the wet sand of our beaches at low tide) that have been found on the plains close to the ends of the outflow channels. ■Judging from the width and depth of the channels, the flow rates must have been truly enormous—perhaps as much as a hundred times greater than the 105 tons per second carried by the great Amazon river. Flooding shaped the outflow channels approximately 3 billion years ago, about the same times as the northern volcanic plains formed.
These landscape features differ from runoff channels in a number of ways.
Paragraph 5: Scientists have known for some time that certain plants, called hyperaccumulators, can concentrate minerals at levels a hundredfold or greater than normal. ■A survey of known hyperaccumulators identified that 75 percent of them amassed nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium are other minerals of choice. ■Hyperaccumulators run the entire range of the plant world. ■They may be herbs, shrubs, or trees. ■Many members of the mustard family, spurge family, legume family, and grass family are top hyperaccumulators. Many are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where accumulation of high concentrations of metals may afford some protection against plant-eating insects and microbial pathogens.
Certain minerals are more likely to be accumulated in large quantities than others.
因：because, because of, for , since, as, in that, now that，
result from，as a result of
例句：now that 既然
Now that the problem has been identified, appropriate action can be taken.
Now that you've seen the house, I'll show you the grounds.
The days are closing in now that it is September.
例句：as a result of 由于...的结果，起因
She died as a result of her injuries.
He was made king as a result of various intrigues.
Her heart was slightly damaged as a result of her long illness.
果：lead to ,contribute to, so that, so, thus, therefore, consequently, result in，hence
Smoking is a major factor contribute to cancer.
but, however, yet(然而), whereas, rather than, instead of, unlike, in fact, actually弱转，on the contary, contrary to，conversely
█Ecologists are especially interested to know what factors contribute to the resilience of communities because climax communities all over the world are being severely damaged or destroyed by human activities. █The destruction caused by the volcanic explosion of Mount St. Helens, in the northwestern United States, for example, pales in comparison to the destruction caused by humans. █We need to know what aspects of a community are most important to the community’s resistance to destruction, as well as its recovery. █
In fact, damage to the environment by humans is often much more severe than damage by natural events and processes.
Paragraph 5: The reaction of farmers to the inevitable depletion of the Ogallala varies. Many have been attempting to conserve water by irrigating less frequently or by switching to crops that require less water. █Others, however, have adopted the philosophy that it is best to use the water while it is still economically profitable to do so and to concentrate on high-value crops such as cotton. █The incentive of the farmers who wish to conserve water is reduced by their knowledge that many of their neighbors are profiting by using great amounts of water, and in the process are drawing down the entire region’s water . █
Paragrapsuppliesh 6: In the face of the upcoming water supply crisis, a number of grandiose schemes have been developed to transport vast quantities of water by canal or pipeline from the Mississippi, the Missouri, or the Arkansas rivers. █Unfortunately, the cost of water obtained through any of these schemes would increase pumping costs at least tenfold, making the cost of irrigated agricultural products from the region uncompetitive on the national and international markets.
But even if uncooperative farmers were to join in the conservation efforts, this would only delay the depletion of the aquifer.
still, also, indeed, furthermore(进一步), moreover(而且，此外), even(甚至，更),
besides, additionally, in addition, what's more
Paragraph 4: Trade between the West and the settled and prosperous Chinese dynasties introduced new forms and different technologies. One of the most far-reaching examples is the impact of the fine ninth-century AD. Chinese porcelain wares imported into the Arab world. ■So admired were these pieces that they encouraged the development of earthenware made in imitation of porcelain and instigated research into the method of their manufacture. ■From the Middle East the Chinese acquired a blue pigment—a purified form of cobalt oxide unobtainable at that time in China—that contained only a low level of manganese. Cobalt ores found in China have a high manganese content, which produces a more muted blue-gray color. ■In the seventeenth century, the trading activities of the Dutch East India Company resulted in vast quantities of decorated Chinese porcelain being brought to Europe, which stimulated and influenced the work of a wide variety of wares, notably Delft. ■The Chinese themselves adapted many specific vessel forms from the West, such as bottles with long spouts, and designed a range of decorative patterns especially for the European market.
Foreign trade was also responsible for certain innovations in coloring.
although，though, even though(if), even, despite, in spite of, nevertheless, anyway, as while(虽然，尽管，即使），still（尽管如此）
Paragraph 1: It has long been accepted that the Americas were colonized by a migration of peoples from Asia, slowly traveling across a land bridge called Beringia (now the Bering Strait between northeastern Asia and Alaska) during the last Ice Age. ■The first water craft theory about the migration was that around 11,000-12,000 years ago there was an ice-free corridor stretching from eastern Beringia to the areas of North America south of the great northern glaciers. It was the midcontinental corridor between two massive ice sheets-the Laurentide to the west-that enabled the southward migration. ■But belief in this ice-free corridor began to crumble when paleoecologist Glen MacDonald demonstrated that some of the most important radiocarbon dates used to support the existence of an ice-free corridor were incorrect. ■He persuasively argued that such an ice-free corridor did not exist until much later, when the continental ice began its final retreat. ■
Moreover, other evidence suggests that even if an ice-free corridor did exist, it would have lacked the resources needed for human colonization.
if, suppose, supposing,in case (of), so long as, unless, only if, when
Paragraph 2: Continued sedimentation—the process of deposits’ settling on the sea bottom—buries the organic matter and subjects it to higher temperatures and pressures, which convert the organic matter to oil and gas. █As muddy sediments are pressed together, the gas and small droplets of oil may be squeezed out of the mud and may move into sandy layers nearby. █Over long periods of time (millions of years), accumulations of gas and oil can collect in the sandy layers. █Both oil and gas are less dense than water, so they generally tend to rise upward through water-saturated rock and sediment. █
Unless something acts to halt this migration, these natural resources will eventually reach the surface.
Paragraph 4: Helping this group of teachers to revise their thinking about classroom events became central. ■This process took time and patience and effective trainers. ■The researchers estimate that the initial training of the teachers to view events objectively took between 20 and 30 hours, with the same number of hours again being required to practice the skills of reflection.
Paragraph 5: ■Wildman and Niles identify three principles that facilitate reflective practice in a teaching situation. ■The first is support from administrators in an education system, enabling teachers to understand the requirements of reflective practice and how it relates to teaching students. The second is the availability of sufficient time and space. The teachers in the program described how they found it difficult to put aside the immediate demands of others in order to give themselves the time they needed to develop their reflective skills. The third is the development of a collaborative environment with support from other teachers. Support and encouragement were also required to help teachers in the program cope with aspects of their professional life with which they were not comfortable. Wildman and Niles make a summary comment: “Perhaps the most important thing we learned is the idea of the teacher-as-reflective-practitioner will not happen simply because it is a good or even compelling idea.”
However, changing teachers’ thinking about reflection will not succeed unless there is support for reflection in the teaching environment.
举例：for example, for instance, such as, including
总结：in sum, in general, overall, to sum up, on the whole, generally
Paragraph 5: Above the tree line there is a zone that is generally called alpine tundra. █Immediately adjacent to the timberline, the tundra consists of a fairly complete cover of low-lying shrubs, herbs, and grasses, while higher up the number and diversity of species decrease until there is much bare ground with occasional mosses and lichens and some prostrate cushion plants. █Some plants can even survive in favorable microhabitats above the snow line. The highest plants in the world occur at around 6,100 meters on Makalu in the Himalayas. █At this great height, rocks, warmed by the sun, melt small snowdrifts. █
This explains how, for example, alpine cushion plants have been found growing at an altitude of 6,180 meters.
and, as well as, likewise(同样的), while(与此同时), or, meanwhile(同时), neither...nor..., either...or..., not only...but also... more...than