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Multiprocessors. Andreas Klappenecker CPSC321 Computer Architecture. Idea. Build powerful computers by connecting many smaller ones. . Multiprocessors. + Good for timesharing + easy to realize - difficult to write good concurrent programs - hard to parallelize tasks

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Multiprocessors

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Multiprocessors l.jpg

Multiprocessors

Andreas Klappenecker

CPSC321 Computer Architecture


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Idea

Build powerful computers by connecting

many smaller ones.


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Multiprocessors

+ Good for timesharing

+ easy to realize

- difficult to write good concurrent programs

- hard to parallelize tasks

- mapping to architecture can be difficult


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Questions

  • How do parallel processors share data?— single address space— message passing

  • How do parallel processors coordinate? — synchronization (locks, semaphores)— built into send / receive primitives— operating system protocols

  • How are they implemented?— connected by a single bus — connected by a network


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Shared Memory Multiprocessors

Problems???

Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP)


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Distributed Memory Multiprocessors

  • Distributed shared-memory multiprocessor

  • Message passing multiprocessor


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Multiprocessors


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Connection Network

  • Static Network

    • fixed connections between nodes

  • Dynamic Network

    • packet switching (packets routed from sender to recipient)

    • circuit switching (connection between nodes can be established by crossbar or switching network)


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Static Connection Networks


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yk-1xk-1 . . . x2yk-2

yk-1 yk-2. . . xk-1y1

xk-1 . . . x1 yk-1

yk-1 yk-2xk-1 . . . x3yk-3

x2

x1

y1

x0

xk-1

y0

yk-2

yk-3

xk-2

yk-1

Circuit Switching: Delta Networks

  • Route from any input x to output y by selecting links determined by successive d-ary digits of y’s label.

  • This process is reversible; we can route from output y back to x by following the links determined by successive digits of x’s label.

  • This self-routingproperty allows for simple hardware-based routing of cells.

0101

1

1

0

1

0

1

1101

0

1

x=xk-1 . . . x0

y=yk-1 . . . y0


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Network versus Bus


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Performance / Unit Cost


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Programming

  • lock variables

  • semaphores

  • monitor


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Cache Coherency


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Outlook

  • Distributed Algorithms

  • Distributed Systems

  • Parallel Programming

  • Parallel Compilers


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