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Course Title Advanced English Reading. Course Book Advanced English Reading —— Modern Prose Unit Thirteen Philosophers among the Carrots. Teaching Procedures and Focus. Intensive Study of the Text. Philosophers among the Carrots. Questions on the title.

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Course title advanced english reading

Course TitleAdvanced English Reading

  • Course Book

    Advanced English Reading —— Modern Prose

  • Unit Thirteen

    Philosophers among the Carrots


Teaching procedures and focus

Teaching Procedures and Focus


Course title advanced english reading

Intensive Study of the Text


Philosophers among the carrots

Philosophers among the Carrots


Questions on the title

Questions on the title

Philosophers among the Carrots

  • What does the title mean ?

  • What is a philosopher ? What are carrots ?

  • In what way does a philosopher have anything to do with carrots?

    Keep the questions in your mind while reading and we will come back to them.


Course title advanced english reading

1. As I was cleaning the refrigerator the other day and thinking deep thoughts about Women's Lib, I asked myself if it was still permissible to take pleasure in the profession of housewife and not be a traitor to the cause. Am I really making use of my college education? What good did “Introduction to Philosophy, IA” do me, for instance? Then I recalled Socrates' saying that, “The unexamined life is not worth living,” and decided that maybe it was time to examine mine.


Comprehension questions

Comprehension Questions:

  • What reminds the author of Women’s Lib and Socrates?

  • Why does the author decide that it is time to examine her own life ?


Course title advanced english reading

2. As I stood eating apples, oranges and brown bananas and gazing into the depths of my refrigerator while considering college educations and housewives, I saw the manifestation of a great, metaphysical truth. “Like energy, matter simply descends in scale—from roast to stew to soup to cat food.” I muttered eruditely to the cat as I paused in my own eating long enough to pour a bit of soup into his bowl. “Where are the string beans of yesterday?” But of course, they are the vegetable soup of today. If I hadn't been to college, I wouldn't have seen that significant analogy, I thought smugly, depositing an orange pit in the sink as I finished the salad (or did I learn that in high school?).


Language points

Language Points

  • metaphysical truth

    philosophical truth

  • eruditely

    very knowledgeably, quite scholarly

  • analogy

    a comparison between two things that are similar in some way, often used to help explain something or make it easier to understand


Course title advanced english reading

3. Then, as I eyed a bowl of cooked carrots speculatively, sizing them up for carrot cake or marinated vegetable salad and opting for the cake which I knew would be seconded by my husband and three sons, I followed the train of my thoughts which was chugging off into philosophical realms led by Archimedes who said, “Any object placed in a fluid displaces its weight; an immersed object displaces its volume,” and with that principle to guide me I immersed the lumpy carrots in the milk called for in the recipe and found they made almost exactly the one cup called for. Muttering, along with Emerson, that “A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds…”I dumped in a couple of spoonfuls of applesauce to make it come out right.


Language drills

Language Drills

Make sentences with the following phrasal verbs:

1. opt for2. chug off3. call for

1. He opted for early retirement.

2. The train chugged off into distance.

3. Study calls for patience and diligence.


Course title advanced english reading

4. With the cake in the oven I went into the bathroom-laundry room carrying my new found illuminations about housewives and philosophy with me (Buddha had his Bo tree, I have my refrigerator) and there I faced the endless river of dirty tee shirts, sweat socks, pajamas and underwear, with a quote from Heraclitus. “You can't step twice in the same river,” I assured myself as I picked up a pair of jeans and emptied the pockets of bubble gum wrappers, pencils and pennies, and I saw about me the variety in unity and unity in variety spoken of by my aesthetics professor.


Course title advanced english reading

5. Then, having started the wash, and reflecting on the symbol of the lotus in Oriental philosophy which rises, pure and pristine from the mud and muck, I walked proud and untouched among the gym trunks and sweatshirts and out into the rest of the house to tidy it up. There I indulged in aggressive fantasies against my dear family as I picked up a necktie draped on a lamp, a pair of tennis shoes under the couch, a cache of peanut shells beneath a newspaper and, remembering William James' comment that “Even a pig has its philosophy,” I wondered angrily what theirs was.


Course title advanced english reading

6. After several days of such virtuous, domestic behavior scrubbing, ironing, cooking, and making yeast dough that blossoms and rises under my fingers like the miracle of life itself, I got up one morning and, with a wave of willfulness, remembered the philosophy of Rabelais' renegade abbe, “Do as you will.” In my present state of mind I found this the quintessence of good sense and I walked out of the house and into the car, leaving the breakfast dishes on the table. When my husband came home he said, “This place is a mess!”


Comprehension questions1

Comprehension Questions:

  • When did the housewife leave home? Where did she go ? What did she do after she left home? What do wives usually do when they are angry with their husbands ?

  • When did the housewife return home ? Why did her husband complain ? If you were in the position of the housewife, how would you react to the husbands complaint ?


Course title advanced english reading

7. I smiled enigmatically as I continued to stir the chicken soup and quoted Alexander Pope, “All chaos is but order misunderstood,” then added with composure that I had purchased a new a dress.


Course title advanced english reading

8. “A new dress! You just bought one last week!” he shouted in an unseemly manner. But, without becoming the least bit ruffled, I replied, in the words of Pascal, “Ah, but the heart has its reasons the mind knows not of,” and I moved off into the kitchen to cut up some cheese and fruit and put the bread into the oven. Next I went into the bedroom, put on my new red dress, combed my hair and sprayed some “My Desire” cologne on it.


Comprehension questions2

Comprehension Questions:

  • What did the housewife do after she quoted Pascal as a retort on her husband’s complaint ? Why do you think the housewife put on her new red dress and perfumed her hair despite the husband’s unseemly and loud complaint?

  • How did the housewife expect her husband to respond to her deliberate make-up? What do women usually expect from their husbands/boy friends under such circumstances?


Course title advanced english reading

9. My husband looked at me —— eyes growing wide as an approving smile spread over his face. But the bread, with its tantalizing aroma was competing with me his affections and the bread won for the time being. I sat there smiling content amid my four men who were happily and heartily eating and I reflected that the philosophy of Boethius for me, at this time, seemed right and that “Whatever is, is good.”


Critical analysis

Critical Analysis


Assignments

Assignments

  • Translate the text into Chinese and discuss with your classmates the strategies in translating the philosophical quotations (mottos) in the text.

  • Surf the Internet to search for some references on feminism and then write a composition either for feminist ideas or against them.


Sayings about wife housewife

Sayings about Wife & Housewife

  • Wives are young men's mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men's nurses.

    Francis Bacon

  • The most dramatic thing is that, even when you look at women who are working full time outside the home—as full time as their men—when it comes to ironing and cleaning, 60 or 70 per cent of that work is still done by the women.

    Malcolm Wicks


Course title advanced english reading

  • To the old saying that man built the house but woman made of it a 'home' might be added the modern supplement that woman accepted cooking as a chore but man has made of it a recreation.

    Emily Post, 1872-1960, U.S. writer and columnist

  • O! men with sisters dear,

    O! men with mothers and wives!

    It is not linen you're wearing out,

    But human creatures' lives!

    Thomas Hood, 1799-1845, British poet and humorist


Course title advanced english reading

In the late 1960s women began to work for equal rights. They wanted to end discrimination against women at home and work. To accomplish this, women began taking part in marches, working for the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), and generally speaking out against inequality. The women in this photograph participated in the Women’s Strike for Equality held in August 1970 in New York City.


Course title advanced english reading

Socrates (苏格拉底, 469-399 BC),Greek philosopher, who profoundly affected Western philosophy through his influence on Plato. Born in Athens, the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, and Phaenarete, a midwife, he received the regular elementary education in literature, music, and gymnastics. Later he familiarized himself with the rhetoric and dialectics of the Sophists, the speculations of the Ionian philosophers, and the general culture of Periclean Athens. Socrates was reportedly unattractive in appearance and short of stature but was also extremely hardy and self-controlled. He enjoyed life immensely and achieved social popularity because of his ready wit and a keen sense of humor that was completely devoid of satire or cynicism.


Course title advanced english reading

To live an aware life, the individual must begin with an awareness of self. He must conduct a running examination and periodic reexaminations of the self —— in language, the medium of furthest reaches, deepest diving, most labyrinthine windings. The sorting through might well begin with the ordinary, everyday experiences of life. A diary or journal enables one to sift through and evaluate experiences, as well as to come to understand them and their significance —— or insignificance. Most of us do this sifting and evaluation in moments of reverie or in that state of mental vagabondage just before sleep. There is some (even great) advantage, however, in subjecting ourselves to the discipline of written language, in which the vague and the mushy and the muddled must give way to the specific, the firm, the clearly formulated.

----James E. Miller, Jr


Course title advanced english reading

Compare the Following Chinese

  • 曾子曰:“吾日三省吾身。为人谋,而不忠乎?与朋友交,而不信乎?传,不习乎?”

    ——《论语 . 学而》

  • Master Zeng said, Every day I examine myself on three points: in acting on behalf of others, have I always been loyal to their interests? In dealings with my friends, have I always been true to my words? Have I lived up to the ethical precepts that have been handed down to me?


Course title advanced english reading

A housewife with a college education, the author is aware that she owes Women's Lib some loyalty for giving her the right to equal educational opportunities, and that she should not betray the cause, which demands that woman be no servant to man. She therefore feels a bit guilty for remaining a housewife. On the other hand, she cannot escape the situation as a housewife. In fact, she feels at the bottom of her heart she loves her present life. She is thus caught in the conflict between her uneasy conscience for not meeting the demands of Women's Lib and her enjoyment of the housewife "profession".


Course title advanced english reading

She expresses her dilemma precisely in the sentence: "I asked myself if it was still permissible to take pleasure in the profession of housewife and not be a traitor to the cause", in which the words "still permissible to take pleasure" show her strong sentiment for her present condition and her wish to take guilty-free pleasure in being a housewife.

"To relieve her guilty feelings, and also to fulfill her education, she recalls Socrates’ saying and decides to apply her philosophical knowledge to the mundane concerns of a house-keeper, as if saying: "So let's see if I can use my college education in the kitchen."


Course title advanced english reading

Empirical observation in the 19th century led to the conclusion that although energy can be transformed, it cannot be created or destroyed. This concept, known as the conservation of energy, constitutes one of the basic principles of classical mechanics. The principle, along with the parallel principle of conservation of matter, holds true only for phenomena involving velocities that are small compared with the velocity of light. At higher velocities close to that of light, as in nuclear reactions, energy and matter are inter-convertible (see Relativity). In modern physics the two concepts, the conservation of energy and of mass, are thus unified.

(能量守恒,物资不灭定律)


Course title advanced english reading

  • It is an alteration of the quotation from the poem by the French poet Francois Villon: “Where are the snows of yesterday?”“Where are …” is a motif used in many poems which lament the transitory nature of life (the fleeting of time) and beauty. In W. B. Henley’s Ballad of Dead Actors, for instance, we read:

  • Where are the passions they essayed,

  • And where the fears they made flow?

  • In the text, however, the author makes jocular use of the motif to convey in a straight way the following meaning:

  • What has happened to the string beans?

  • (Of course, they have become the vegetable soup of today.)


Archimedes

Archimedes

  • Archimedes made extensive contributions to theoretical mathematics. In addition, he is well known for applying science to everyday life. For instance, Archimedes discovered the principle of water displacement while taking a bath. He also developed simple machines such as the lever and screw into useful tools for war and irrigation.


Course title advanced english reading

An object is subject to an upward force when it is immersed in liquid. The force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. The apparent weight of a block of aluminium (1) immersed in water is reduced by an amount equal to the weight of water displaced. If a block of wood (2) is completely immersed in water, the upward force is greater than the weight of the wood. (Wood is less dense than water, so the weight of the block of wood is less than that of the same volume of water.) So the block rises and partly emerges to displace less water until the upward force exactly equals the weight of the block.


Course title advanced english reading

American intellectual and author Ralph Waldo Emerson helped lead the transcendentalism movement, a 19th-century school that looked to individual intuition, rather than scientific rationalism, as the highest source of knowledge. In “Self-Reliance” (1841), one of Emerson’s most important works, he expressed his optimistic faith in the power of individual achievement and originality. He also considered the overarching need to discover and develop a relationship with nature and with God.


Course title advanced english reading

A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do.

A foolish consistency means an inflexible observance of a rule, a law, etc. A hobgoblin is an abominable thing or quality, a mischievous devil. Little minds refer to people without intelligence. So the quotation means: to observe a rule rigidly is an abominable quality of unintelligent people.


Buddha had his bo tree

Buddha had his Bo tree

This Buddha figure carved out of sandstone is from Mathura, a city in northern India that was at the center of Buddhist sculptural activity from the 2nd century bc to the 6th century ad. Buddha is shown seated on a lion throne with a large halo behind his head and attendants at his side.


Course title advanced english reading

Just as Buddha received heavenly inspiration to found Buddhism under the Bo tree, so I got new understanding about housewives and philosophy beside my refrigerator.

The bo tree is an Indian fig tree also known as bohdi, pipal, or peepul. It is sacred to Buddhists because Buddha is said to have received enlightenment while sitting under a bo tree. The trees can grow to a height of about 30 m (about 100 ft).


You can t step twice into the same river

Everything flows and nothing stays.

The foundation of the world is at rest, the world itself is in motion.

We both step and do not step into the same rivers; we both are and are not.

年年岁岁花相似,

岁岁年年人不同。

唐•刘希夷《代白头翁》

Even if the clothes I wash every day appear to be the same,what I wash today is certainly quite different from what I washed yesterday, because every time I wash them they will surely have different stains, tears, smells and what’s not —— different features that bring to me different fantasies and pleasures.

You can't step twice into the same river.


Course title advanced english reading

This is an aesthetic principle, which means to see uniformity in difference and see difference in uniformity.

Think of it in terms of the Marxist philosophical

principle we are familiar with:

矛盾的普遍性与矛盾的特殊性


Literal interpretation

Literal interpretation

Works of art have long been regarded by aestheticians as a combination of unity with variety. When diverse and various parts are combined onto a whole, the unity of the parts in the whole is immediately perceived, for man has natural inclinations to seek harmony from chaos, and unity from variety. At the same time, however, the human mind constantly needs to seek variety as relief from the dullness and monotony of oneness. Thus, “variety in unity” and “unity in variety” become inseparable from, and complementary to, each other.


Contextual interpretation

Contextual Interpretation

Applied to the author’s case, “unity” means that all the clothes she has to wash are dirty clothes, and “variety” means that every piece to be washed is different from each other. More importantly, “unity” means that all the clothes she washes have one unified quality: they are all worn by her dear family members she is always ready to serve and each piece is something special to her (variety) because each of her four men appeals to her in particularly different ways.


Further implications

Further Implications

  • The author, possibly believing in the old saying “Variety is the spice of life,” takes this quotation to cheer herself up from the monotony of doing the laundry day in and day out.

  • Also, it is very clear that the author takes much pleasure in doing the seemingly tedious laundry because every time she washes the various dirty clothes, they would appeal to her with a fresh new feature and even “a tantalizing aroma” which is unique and special and precious to her.

  • So we may draw from her example here a somewhat philosophical conclusion that happiness has much to do with how one feels rather than what one does or possesses.


Think of this in terms of the following chinese sayings

Think of this in terms of the following Chinese sayings:

  • 有钱难买乐意。

  • 走自己的路,让别人说去吧。

  • 辛酸苦辣,乐在其中。

  • 萝卜白菜,各有所爱。

  • 天生我才必有用。


Course title advanced english reading

爱 莲 说

水陆草木之花,可爱者甚蕃。晋陶渊明独爱菊;自李唐来,世人盛爱牡丹;予独爱莲之出淤泥而不染,濯清涟而不妖,中通外直,不蔓不枝,香远益清,亭亭静植,可远观而不可亵玩焉。予谓菊,花之隐逸者也;牡丹,花之富贵者也;莲,花之君子者也。噫!菊之爱,陶后鲜有闻;莲之爱,同予者何人;牡丹之爱,宜乎众矣。

( 周敦颐 1017-1073 )


Contextual implications

Contextual Implications

While washing the dirty clothes, the college-educated housewife was consoled and even proud of herself through mere imagination of herself as the lotus flower in Oriental philosophy, which rises, pure and pristine from the mud and muck.


William james

William James

American psychologist and philosopher, William James helped to popularize the philosophy of pragmatism with his book Pragmatism: A New Name for Old Ways of Thinking (1907). Influenced by a theory of meaning and verification developed for scientific hypotheses by American philosopher C. S. Peirce, James held that truth is what works, or has good experimental results. In a related theory, James argued the existence of God is partly verifiable because many people derive benefits from believing.


Francois rabelais 1494 1553

Francois Rabelais (1494~1553)

French writer and priest who for his contemporaries was an eminent physician and humanist and for posterity is the author of the comic masterpiece Gargantua and Pantagruel. The four novels composing this work are outstanding for their rich use of Renaissance French and for their comedy, which ranges from gross burlesque to profound satire. They exploit popular legends, farces, and romances, as well as classical and Italian material, but were written primarily for a court public and a learned one.


Alexander pope 1688 1744

Alexander Pope (1688-1744)

English poet, who, modeling himself after the great poets of classical antiquity, wrote highly polished verse, often in a didactic or satirical vein. In verse translations, moral and critical essays, and satires that made him the foremost poet of his age, he brought the heroic couplet, which had been refined by John Dryden, to ultimate perfection. He first earned fame with the work An Essay on Criticism (1711), in which he wrote the now famous line, “To err is human, to forgive divine.”


Please read the following chinese

Please read the following Chinese:

同 不 各 低 高 近 远

中 山 此 在 身 缘 只

目 面 真 山 庐 识 不

峰 成 侧 岭 成 看 横


All chaos is but order misunderstood

All chaos is but order misunderstood.

Literally, the saying means: All chaos is in fact not chaos, but is order which has been mistaken for chaos.In this context, the author means to say: “My house is always very clean and tidy and you just take for granted a housewife’s hardship. Even today, without much cleaning, our house is still clean and tidy with everything in its place. You simply don’t know ‘Housework is never done.’”


Blaise pascal 1623 1662

Blaise Pascal (1623~1662)

Frenchphilosopher, physicist and mathematician. He is generally ranked among the finest French polemicists, especially in the Lettres provinciales, a classic in the literature of irony. He affects his readers by his use of logic and the passionate force of his dialectic. His motto is “We know the truth, not only by the mind, but also by the heart.”


The heart has its reasons the mind knows not of

The heart has its reasons the mind knows not of.

The heart is often related with feeling, emotion, intuition, instinct and impulse, which are usually identical withwomen, while the mind stands for reason, ration, logic, synthesis and composure, which are generally assumed to be characteristic of men. The quotation means that sometimes we do something out of emotion which is not based on reason. It may also be taken to mean that sometimes women do something men can not understand at all.


Course title advanced english reading

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus

Boethius, (AD 470-524), Roman philosopher and statesman, he wrote De Consolatione Philosophiae (The Consolation of Philosophy, c. 523), a philosophic work that, although not explicitly a Christian text, contained so many elements of Christian ethics that it was highly regarded in Europe during medieval times. Many translations of the work were made, notably (in England) by King Alfred the Great and by the poet Geoffrey Chaucer. Boethius also wrote treatises on logic that profoundly influenced the terminology of medieval logic; translations and commentaries on the works of Aristotle, from which medieval scholars largely derived their knowledge of the Greek philosopher; and works on music, arithmetic, and theology.


Course title advanced english reading

Whatever is, is good.

Written nearly 13 centuries earlier, this quotation is not related to Hegel’s (German philosopher, 1770~1831) much quoted saying: Whatever exists is reasonable. By this Hegel means that the task of philosophy is to comprehend the rationality of what already exists.

Literally, the quotation means that whatever exists is good. Reality is good because everything is created by God.


Course title advanced english reading

  • The author quotes this to show that she is satisfied with everything because nothing could bring greater satisfaction to a mother and wife than being amid her own dear and beloved ones, especially seeing them heartily eating.

  • Thus the question (I asked myself if it was still permissible to take pleasure in the profession of housewife and not be a traitor to the cause.) raised at the beginning of the essay has found its positive answer: yes, it is not only permissible, but also practical and preferable, and even reasonable and philosophical to take pleasure in the profession of housewife because “Whatever is, is good.”


Heracleitus bc 540 480

Heracleitus ( BC 540~480 )

Greek philosopher remembered for his cosmology, in which fire forms the basic material principle of an orderly universe. Little is known about his life, and the one book he apparently wrote is lost. His views survive in the short fragments quoted and attributed to him by later authors.


Philosophers among the carrots1

PHILOSOPHERS AMONG THE CARROTS

  • What is a philosopher?

  • somebody who studies philosophy: the branch of knowledge or academic study devoted to the systematic examination of basic concepts such as truth, existence, reality, causality, and freedom

  • somebody holding particular beliefs: somebody who believes in a particular system of thought or doctrine and thinks and acts accordingly

  • thinking person: a thinker who deeply and seriously considers human affairs and life in general

  • calm and rational person: somebody who calmly and rationally reacts to events, especially adversity


What are carrots

What are Carrots?

common name for a plant (see Parsley) native to Eurasia and northern Africa and widely distributed throughout the North Temperate Zone; the name is also applied to the root of this plant. The wild variety, popularly known as Queen Anne's lace, has a tough, woody root, unsuitable for food. The cultivated variety is the popular table vegetable.


In what way do philosophers have anything to do with carrots

In what way do philosophers have anything to do with carrots ?

At first sight, the title of the text presents a collocation clash, for it places two things together which are scarcely associated in real life. A close analysis, however, may reveal that the title reflects the contrastive structure (between housewife and college education, housework and philosophy) of the text in the largest possible measure of neatness.

Along this line, sufficient justification can be found for the title, which is in effect not a semantic incongruity, but vividly illustrates the message of the text -- the writer's application of philosophy to the banalities of her life for the purpose of satisfying her conscience and consoling herself in household chores.


Course title advanced english reading

The text may well be turned visually into a table with two columns. In the left-side column we may enter all the philosophical quotations or sayings from the text, and in the right side column are a housewife's domestic activities in one-to-one correspondence to the philosophical ideas on the left. Thus, the author's meditation on the tricky relation between an educated housewife and Women's Lib during her cleaning of the refrigerator, leads to the recall of Socrate's saying that "The unexamined life is not worth living" (pa 1). This prompts all the humorous details of her reassessment of life following this introductory paragraph.


Philosophers among the carrots2

Women’s lib

Socrates

Matter descends in scale

Archimedes

Emerson

Budda and Bo tree

Heraclitus

Symbol of Lotus

William James

Rabelais

Alxander Pope

Pascal

Boethius

doing housework

examining life

eating apples, oranges

preparing for cake

adjusting the cake recipe

narrator and refrigerator

faced with dirty clothes

washing sweaty clothes

becoming angry

leaving home

protest against complaints

defending for new dress

feeling content with life

Philosophers Among the Carrots


Course title advanced english reading

The juxtaposition of philosophic terms which are all of Latin origin, alongside common core Anglo-Saxon household words to form a lexical contrast, thus matching the overall contrastive structure and theme.


The repetition of sentence structures

The repetition of sentence structures

The writer repeats the sentence structure “As I + dynamic verbs (describing domestic activities such as clean, cut, eat, pick up, spray, etc.)…, I + stative verbs (denoting perception or cognition such as eye, gaze, find, know, recall, reflect, remember, see, understand, wonder, etc.), thus connecting the two otherwise incompatible sets of activities in a very neat form. (pas 1, 2, 3 )


Contrastive essay structure

Contrastive Essay Structure

  • Right from the title the essay runs through an alternating contrast between a commonhousewife and college education, daily housework and orthodoxy philosophy.

  • Started with an internal conflict between“taking pleasure in the profession of housewife” and “not being a traitor to the cause of Women's Lib”, the essay reflects the narrator’s contemplation of the tricky relation between an educated housewife and Women's Lib.


Figures of speech

Figures of speech

  • Alliteration: pure and pristine , mud and muck (pa 5)

  • Metaphor: the train of my thoughts which was chugging off ( pa 3 )

  • Analogy: Buddha had his Bo tree, I have my refrigerator. ( pa 4 )

  • Abundant philosophical allusions knitted very naturally into the texture of the entire essay

  • The humorous tone with an omnisciently erudite touch (幽默而不乏神来之笔)


Philosophically

Philosophically

Philosophy (view of life), rather than physical possessions, decides the quality of human life. That is, a healthy life attitude guarantees a happy life.


Sociologically

Sociologically

Personal fulfillment is achieved as long as the individual social role is played well.


Educationally

Educationally

The ultimate function of education is not to make the educated useful (utilitarian) but to bring the potentialities of the educated into full play, that is, to make the educated a full person with a liberal mind and a healthy body.


Ideologically feminism and feminist ideas

Ideologically (Feminism and Feminist Ideas)

Every detail of the author’s application of her philosophical knowledge to the mundane concerns of a house-keeper eventually goes from the sublime to the ridiculous, creating a series of comic situations in which profound idealism is faced with the dull daily work of a “family manager”. The fact that she seems able to make any of her domestic situations justifiable by one philosopher or another is also satirical in itself. The jocular effects she produces are only intended to amuse the reader and to poke fun at the ideals held up by Women's Lib.


Politically women s liberation equal rights

Politically (Women’s liberation, Equal Rights)

The bitter irony comes at the end of the essay, when she finally decides to rebel against Women’s Lib, for which she used to be an advocator, using the philosophy she has learned —— "Whatever is, is good" (pa 9). This quotation shows that she is perfectly happy with her present life, and that she is somewhat saying “go to hell" to the Women's Liberation Movement.


Literarily creative writing

Literarily (creative writing)

世事洞明皆学问,

人情练达即文章。

《红楼梦》


Further study

Further Study

  • Women’s Rights

  • Feminism

  • Equal Rights Amendment

  • Anti-ERA


Women s rights

Women’s Rights

Women’s Rightsmean to establish the same social, economic, and political status for women as for men. Women’s rights guarantee that women will not face discrimination on the basis of their sex. Until the second half of the 20th century, women in most societies were denied some of the legal and political rights accorded to men. Although women in much of the world have gained significant legal rights, many people believe that women still do not have complete political, economic, and social equality with men.


Feminism

Feminism

Feminism isa collectivetermfor systems of belief and theories that pay special attention to women’s rights and women’s position in culture and society. The term tends to be used for the women’s rights movement, which began in the late 18th century and continues to campaign for complete political, social, and economic equality between women and men.


Feminists

Feminists

Feministsareunitedby the idea that women’s position in society is unequal to that of men, and that society is structured in such a way as to benefit men to the political, social, and economic detriment of women. However, feminists have used different theories to explain these inequalities and have advocated different ways of redressing inequalities, and there are marked geographic and historical variations in the nature of feminism.


Anti era

Anti-ERA

In the 1970s and early 1980s, Schlafly campaigned against the proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). The amendment called for men and women to be given equal treatment under the law. Schlafly opposed the ERA because it would require women to serve in combat, and because she believed it would take away legal rights of wives and would negatively influence family life. Schlafly also argued that the amendment would lead to unisex restrooms. She became a leading opponent of the ERA through her lobbying organizations, Stop ERA and Eagle Forum, and by testifying against the ERA before 30 state legislatures. The ERA was defeated in 1982, and Schlafly continued to lead her Eagle Forum organization in campaigns advocating conservative issues. She has written several books, including A Choice Not an Echo (1964), which was an endorsement of the presidential campaign of Senator Barry Goldwater; The Power of a Positive Woman (1977); and Pornography's Victims (1987).


Phyllis schlafly

Phyllis Schlafly

American political activist Phyllis Schlafly has long opposed the women’s liberation movement. She is a proponent of traditional roles for women as wives and mothers.


Course title advanced english reading

A housewife with a college education, the author is aware that she owes Women's Lib some loyalty for giving her the right to equal educational opportunities, and that she should not betray the cause, which demands that woman be no servant to man. She therefore feels a bit guilty for remaining a housewife. On the other hand, she cannot escape the situation as a housewife. In fact, she feels at the bottom of her heart she loves her present life (She is taking pleasure in the profession of housewife). She is thus caught in the conflict between her uneasy conscience for not meeting the demands of Women's Lib and her enjoyment of the housewife "profession". She expresses her dilemma precisely in the sentence: "I asked myself if it was still permissible to take pleasure in the profession of housewife and not be a traitor to the cause", in which the words "still permissible to take pleasure" show her strong sentiment for her present condition and her wish to take guilty-free pleasure in being a housewife.


Course title advanced english reading

"To relieve her guilty feelings, and also to fulfill her education, she recalls Socrates’ saying and decides to apply her philosophical knowledge to the mundane concerns of a house-keeper, as if saying: "So let's see if I can use my college education in the kitchen."


Sayings about wives

Sayings about Wives

  • A good wife is the joy of life.

  • A man without a wife is like a horse without a bridle.

  • A wife is sought for her virtue, a concubine for her beauty.

  • If the wife wears the breeches, the husband must rock the cradle.

  • If you take a wife from hell she will bring you back.

  • The first wife is matrimony, the second company, the third heresy.

  • When husband and wife agree with each other, they can dry up the ocean with buckets.

  • A woman's work is never done.


Quotations on women

Quotations on Women

  • Wives are young men's mistresses, companions for middle age, and old men's nurses.

    ----Francis Bacon

  • The most dramatic thing is that, even when you look at women who are working full time outside the home—as full time as their men—when it comes to ironing and cleaning, 60 or 70 per cent of that work is still done by the women.

    ----Malcolm Wicks(1947~ )

    Britishsociologist,1990.


Course title advanced english reading

For a woman to get a rewarding sense of total creation by way of the multiple monotonous chores that are her daily lot...as irrational as for an assembly line worker to rejoice that he had created an automobile because he had tightened a bolt.

----Edith Mendel Stern (1901~1975)

U.S.writer and social critic.

"Women are Household Slaves"


Course title advanced english reading

O! men with sisters dear,

O! men with mothers and wives!

It is not linen you're wearing out,

But human creatures' lives!

Thomas Hood(1799-1845)

Britishpoet and humorist

"The Song of the Shirt"


Course title advanced english reading

Here lies a poor woman who always was tired,

For she lived in a place where help wasn't hired

Her last words on earth

Dear friends I am going

Where washing ain't done nor sweeping nor sewing,

And everything there is exact to my wishes,

For there they don't eat and there's no washing of dishes.

Don't mourn for me now, don't mourn for me never,

For I'm going to do nothing for ever and ever.

Anonymous

Spectator (London),Letter


Course title advanced english reading

  • To the old saying that man built the house but woman made of it a 'home' might be added the modern supplement that woman accepted cooking as a chore but man has made of it a recreation.

    ----Emily Post(1872~1960)

    U.S.writer and columnist, Etiquette

  • The whole process of home-making, house-keeping and cooking, which ever has been woman's special province, should be looked on as an art and a profession.

    ----Sarah Josepha Hale(1788~1879)

    U.S.editor and poet. Godey's Lady's Book


Course title advanced english reading

Goodbye

Best wishes to you all !


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