The reconstruction era
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The Reconstruction Era. Journal – Reconstruction Goals Think about the disunity in America, the Economic, Political and Social problems that must be dealt with as the Civil War ended. Brain storm about the problems that needed to be addressed. Instructions: write in complete sentences

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The Reconstruction Era

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The reconstruction era

The Reconstruction Era

The reconstruction era

Journal – Reconstruction Goals

Think about the disunity in America,

the Economic, Political and

Social problems that must

be dealt with as

the Civil War ended.

Brain storm about the problems that

needed to be addressed.

The reconstruction era

Instructions:write in complete sentences

  • Write 3 Reconstruction goals

    for the United States as they begin the

    Reconstruction process.

    * Goals should be details or specifics

    on how to carry them out

  • Think About:

    > How can Northern resources help the South?

    > Ways the South can rebuild their economy

    > Assistance to newly freed slaves

    > Bringing the Confederate states back into the union

    > New laws

Goals of reconstruction

1. Reunite the former

Confederate states

with the Union

2. Redefine the rights

and status of blacks

3. Literally rebuild the

South’s economy

Goals of Reconstruction

Reconstruction plans

Reconstruction Plans

Lincoln’s Plan

Johnson’s Plan

Congressional Reconstruction

p. 376-380

Lincoln s plan

  • Lenient

  • 10% Plan – 10 % of

    1860 voting pop. agreed

  • Don’t punish entire state

    for actions of a few


  • Pardon ALL except high

    rank Confed. leaders

  • Form a new state gov.

    and constitution

Lincoln’s Plan

President andrew johnson


  • born poor

  • built own wealth

  • Southern Democrat

  • Remained loyal to Union

  • Former slave Owner

  • Did not like wealthy planters

  • For abolition

  • Anti civil rights

President Andrew Johnson

Why was he Lincoln’s V.P.?

Johnson s plan

  • Abolish slavery

  • Declare secession illegal

  • Swear allegiance to Union

  • ratify 13th Amendment

  • Pardon all southerners

    who supported abolition

  • Pardon could only be

    given to wealthy & Confed.

    leaders by the Pres.

Johnson’s Plan

- South liked plan

  • New state gov’t & const.

Congressional plan

Passed by Radical Republicans


  • 50% of state voters agree

  • divide into Military districts

  • Ratify 14th & 15th amend.

  • Disenfranchisement for

    Confed. leaders

  • Black men in Congress

  • Freedmen’s Bureau

  • New state gov. & constitution

Congressional Plan

  • MorePunishment

  • for the South

Radical congress

Radical Congress

  • Carpetbaggers

  • Scalawags

  • African Americans

  • What do you believe were the goals of this Congress

- Punish the South

- Push for more equality

The reconstruction era




He was not able to carry it out

He wanted easy transition

  • Who’s plan was the easiest?


  • Who did Johnson believe was responsible for Reconstruction?

  • Who did the Radicals believe was responsible for Reconstruction?

The President - him




  • 13th - official abolished slavery

    > made emancipation legal

  • 14th - declared that all native born or

    naturalized persons were citizens and

    had the same rights as citizens

    > nullified the Supreme Courts decision

    on the Dred Scott case

  • 15th - no one could be denied the right to vote

    based on race, color, or previousservitude


The new south

The “New South”

A. Economic struggles

B. Blacks register to vote

C. Freedmen’s Bureau

D. Carpetbaggers & Scalawags

E. Black Codes

p. 385

New south cont

“New” South cont…

Treatment & Progress for Blacks

  • Black codes passed in the South

    around 1865

    > laws intended to stop the movement

    of equality for blacks

    > codes restored restrictions of


    (ex. SC & MS Plans)

p. 379

Black code examples

Black Code Examples

  • could not rent or lease farmland

  • could not testify against whites

  • could not start their own business

  • could not carry a weapon

  • could not serve on a jury

  • could not marry a white

Precursor to Jim Crow Laws

-literacy test

- poll tax

- grandfather clause

Freedmen s bureau act 1865

Freedmen’s Bureau Act 1865

  • established by Congress

  • assist former slaves and poor whites

    in South

  • Distribute clothes, food

    set up hospitals, schools, and

    teacher-training centers

    * Greatest contribution - education

p. 388

The reconstruction era




Arranges credit for sharecroppers, may own store

Owes balance of crops

Owes labor + 1/3 to ½ of crop

Provides land, seed, tools, work animal

Provides credit to buy food, clothes, etc.




  • Advantages

    - planters had land worked

    w/out paying workers

    - workers had a place to live

  • Drawbacks

    - No income until harvest

    - had to buy goods on credit

    - had to work out of poverty

Endless Cycle

p. 391

Civil rights act of 1866

Civil Rights Act of 1866

  • 14th Amendment

  • Forbid black codes

  • tried to strengthen the Freedmen's Bureau

  • President Johnson vetoedthe bill

    > drove a wedge between himself and


  • Congress overrode President Johnson's veto

    > 1st time Congress had done this

Example of

Checks and Balance

The veto

The Veto

Use cartoon analysis

Johnson s impeachment 1867

Johnson's Impeachment 1867:

  • Impeach

    - to charge Federal official with a crime

  • Radicals felt Johnson was always working against reconstruction & not carrying out constitutional duties.

    i.e. - removed military leaders who helped blacks

    - vetoed Freedmen Act & Civil Rights Act

    - violated the Tenure of Office Act

p. 381

Election of grant 1868

Election of Grant 1868:

  • Southerners were very against

  • 15th amendment passed

    ~ due to fear of restrictions

    being placed on blacks

    for voting for Grant

  • KKK organized in


    - southern democrats

p. 394

Gains in education

Gains in Education

  • 80% over age 20 were illiterate

  • public and private organizations set

    up education facilities

  • Hampton Institute (VA)

    - college for blacks

  • by 1877 - 600,000 enrolled

    in elementary schools

p. 388

Gains in politics

Gains in Politics

  • held offices in local, state and federal positions

  • many office holders were ministers

    and teachers

  • South had few blacks in office

  • only SC had a black majority

    in state legislature

Journal election of 1876

Journal – Election of 1876

Answer these questions in complete sentences

1. What candidate carried most of the South?

2. Why do you think most of the South voted for him? 

3. What candidate carried the west?

 4. What appears to be unusual about this election?

Election map 1876

Election Map, 1876

End of reconstruction

End of Reconstruction:

  • Reconstruction ended after a close presidential race in 1876

    > Democrat - Sam Tilden

    > Rep. - Rutherford Hayes

  • close race was decided by 3 states

    > SC, LA, and FL

    - all still had military reconstruction gov'ts

Compromise of 1877

Compromise of 1877:

  • Southern Democrats would cast Republican electoral votes for Hayes

    IF…. Hayes would remove the

    last federal troops out of the South

  • Hayes wanted to win the election

  • Hayes agreed and removed military troops when he became President.

  • Officially ended Reconstruction

p. 399

Jim crow laws

Jim Crow Laws

  • Enacted between 1876 and 1965

  • State and local laws

  • made segregation official

  • new generation in south more racist

  • Laws prevented equality for blacks

    i.e. Segregation in public places

p. 388

Jim crow laws1

Jim Crow Laws

  • Rice appeared on

    stage as Jim Crow

  • performed in

    Minstrel show

  • makeup stereotyping


  • Jim Crow, a term that

    referred to blacks

Plessy v ferguson 1896 separate but equal

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): “Separate but Equal”

  • 30 yr old, Plessy (1/8th black jailed for sitting on a whites only railway car)

    - he sued claiming unconstitutional

  • Supreme Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as both races had access to equal facilities.

  • Booker T. Washington response

p. 388

The reconstruction era

Journal - Reconstruction

Success or Failure ??

Read Point / Counter Point

on p. 400

and answer the following

questions in

complete sentences.

The reconstruction era

1. How did Reconstruction improve the lives of

African Americans?

2. What caused the loss of support for


3. How did racial bias affect the success of


4. What are the 2 major arguments each side

makes for the failure or success of


5. Do you feel it was a success or failure? WHY?

Eoc workbook

EOC Workbook

  • Pages

    85 (1,2)

    93 (1,2)

Link and learn

Link and Learn

Pages - Reconstruction

13 (Plessy v. Ferguson)

18 (Black codes, Jim Crow laws)

22 (Reconstruction)

Pages – Civil War

9 (Anaconda Plan)

12 (Emancipating the slaves)

32 (Secession)

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