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Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers Chapter Ten: Arguing. Steve Wood Tri-County Community College. Introduction. An argument is any attempt to convince or persuade someone. All writing is argumentative. Effective Arguments. The Parts of an Effective Argument

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Prentice hall guide for college writers chapter ten arguing

Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers Chapter Ten: Arguing

Steve Wood

Tri-County Community College


Introduction
Introduction

  • An argument is any attempt to convince or persuade someone.

  • All writing is argumentative.


Effective arguments
Effective Arguments

The Parts of an Effective Argument

  • Claim -- the point that the person making the argument is trying to get across

  • Appeal -- the means by which the person making the argument is attempting to prove the claim


Claims
Claims

There are four basic types of claims.

  • Often, arguments involve combinations of the four types.

  • Each type carries with it a different set of issues.


Types of claims
Types of Claims

  • Claims of Fact -- “X is true.”

  • Claims of Value -- “X is good.”

  • Claims of Cause-Effect -- “X causes/caused Y.”

  • Claims of Solution-Policy -- “We should do X.”


Appeals
Appeals

There are three commonly used types of appeals.

  • Logical Appeals

  • Emotional Appeals

  • Character Appeals


Logical appeals
Logical Appeals

  • Logical appeals are appeals based on reason, logical, and factual evidence.

  • Evidence might include statistics, individual facts, examples, or authoritative opinion.

  • Logic can be either inductive or deductive.


Inductive logic
Inductive Logic

Inductive logic is the process by which we proceed from a given set of facts to a generalization based on those facts.

For example:

  • Fact 1: The Atlanta Braves have been to the World Series five of the last nine seasons.

  • Fact 2: The Atlanta Braves went to the World Series last year.

  • Therefore, the Atlanta Braves will go to the World Series this year.


Inductive logic 2
Inductive Logic 2

This is also the principle behind scientific observation. If a scientist performs a certain experiment 100 times and the results are the same, then he/she uses inductive logic to posit a conclusion.


Deductive logic
Deductive Logic

Deductive logic is the application of inductive logic through the formation of a line of reasoning called a syllogism.

For example:

  • All Greeks are mortal.

  • Socrates is Greek.

  • Therefore, Socrates is mortal.


Deductive logic 2
Deductive Logic 2

In other words, deductive logic is the application of a generalization (discovered by inductive logic) in a particular circumstance.

For example,

  • In my opinion, Brian De Palma makes good movies.

  • Mission to Mars is directed by Brian De Palma.

  • Therefore, I believe that Mission to Mars will be a good movie.


Emotional appeals
Emotional Appeals

  • Emotional appeals are when the writer attempts to create an emotional response in the readers to get them to accept an argument.

  • Any emotion can be potentially persuasive -- pity, fear, anger, curiosity, horror, love, guilt, etc.


Character appeals
Character Appeals

  • A character appeal is an appeal based on the personality of the person making the argument.

  • An example would be a celebrity endorsing an product.


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