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The KM3NeT project. Introduction & Main objectives The KM3NeT Technical Design Report Telescope physics performance New developments Summary. Motivation for the high energy neutrino detection. Neutrino will provide unique pieces of information on High Energy Universe Physics case

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The km3net project
The KM3NeT project

  • Introduction & Main objectives

  • The KM3NeT Technical Design Report

  • Telescope physics performance

  • New developments

  • Summary

Motivation for the high energy neutrino detection
Motivation for the high energy neutrino detection

  • Neutrino willprovideuniquepiecesof information on High Energy Universe

  • Physics case

  • Astrophysical high energy neutrino sources (SNR, microquasars, AGN, GRB)

  • Originofcosmicrays

  • Unknown neutrino sources

  • Indirectsearchof Dark Matter

Detection principle tev pev optical cherenkov
Detection principle – TeV-PeV => Optical Cherenkov

Estimates indicate that a detector sizeof the orderof km3 isneededfornastronomy

  • Upward-going neutrinos interact in rock or ice or sea/lake water.

  • Emerging charged particles (in particular muons) produce Cherenkov light in water/ice

  • Detection by array of photomultipliers

  • Muon direction reconstructed from photon arrival times and PMT positions

High energy neutrino telescope world map
High energy neutrino telescope world map





La Seyne

Capo Passero



Km3net towards a km 3 scale n telescope in the mediterranean sea
KM3NeT: towards a km3-scale ntelescopein the MediterraneanSea

  • KM3NeT consortiumconsistsof 40 Europeaninstitutesincludingthose in Antares, Nemo and Nestor

  • KM3NeT Design Studydefinedtelescope design and outlinedmaintechnologicaloptions

    • Approved under the 6° FP (funded by EU for the period 2006-2009)

    • Conceptual Design Report published in 2008

    • Technical Design Report (TDR) outlines technologies for the construction, deployment and maintenance of a deep sea neutrino telescope (TDR contents frozen in November 2009)

  • KM3NeT PreparatoryPhasedefinelegal, governance and fundingaspects. Production planesfor the detector elements, infrastructurefeatures and prototypevalidationwillbealsodefined

    • Approved under the 7° FP (funded by EU for the period 2008-2012)

  • Km3net main objectives
    KM3NeT mainobjectives

    • Energy range and main physics goals

      • Investigate neutrino “point sources”  optimisation in the energy regime 1-100 TeV with a coverage of most of the sky including the Galactic Centre

    • Implementation requirements

      • Construction time ≤5 years

      • Operation over at least 10 years without “major maintenance”

    • Cabled platform for deep-sea research (marine sciences)

    Sky view of a mediterranean sea telescope
    Sky viewof a MediterraneanSeatelescope

    Sensitivity for up-going

    neutrinos considered

    From Mediterranean 24h per day

    visibility up to

    about d=-50°



    • KM3NeT complements the IceCube field of view

    • KM3NeT observes a large part of the sky (~3.5p)

    Km3net an artistic view
    KM3NeT: an artistic view

    Detection Units

    Secondary Junction boxes

    Primary Junction box

    Electro-optical cable

    Technical challenges and telescope design
    TechnicalChallenges and Telescope Design

    • Technical designObjective: Build 3D-array of photodetectors andconnect them to shore (data, power, slow control)

      • Optical modules

      • Data acquisition, information technology and electronics

      • Mechanical structures

      • Deep-sea infrastructure

      • Deployment

      • Calibration

    Design rationale:

    Cost-effectiveReliableProducableEasy to deploy

    Builds on the experience gained with ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR

    Other issues addressed in the design study
    Otherissuesaddressed in the Design Study

    • Site characteristics

      • Measure site characteristics (optical properties and optical background, currents, sedimentation, …)

    • Simulations

      • Determine detector sensitivity, optimise detector parameters

    • Earth and Sea science requirements

      • Define the infrastructure needed to implement multidisciplinary science nodes

    Single pmt optical module
    Single PMT OpticalModule

    • 8” PMT with 35% quantum efficiency inside a 13” glass sphere

    • good timing

    • evolution from pilot projects => well known technology

    Multi pmt optical module

    • 31 3” PMTs inside a 17” glass sphere

    • with 31 bases (total ~140 mW)

    • Cooling shield and stem

    • First full prototype end of 2010

    • Single vs multi photon hit separation

    • Largerphotocade area per OM


    Tdr detection unit concepts
    TDR - Detection Unitconcepts

    DUs are the mechanicalstructuresthatholdOMs, enviromentalsensors, electronics,…

    Triangular arrangements of OMs with single-PMTs or multi-PMT

    Evolution of the ANTARES storey

    Slender string

    Vertical sequence of multi-PMTs OMs

    Flexible tower with horizontal bars equipped with single-PMTs or multi-PMT OMs

    Simulations indicate that local 3D OM arrangement resolve ambiguities in the reconstruction of the muonazimuthal angle

    Deployment strategy

    • Compact package & Self unfurling => easy logistics that speeds up and eases deployment

    • Connection to seabed network by Remotely Operated Vehicle

    The packed flexible tower

    Spherical deployment structure for string with multi-PMT OM

    Successful deployment test in February 2010

    Successful deployment test in December 2009

    Km3net performance
    KM3NeT performance

    Detector resolution

    Median of DWn-mrec

    Up-going neutrino Effective Area

    ☐Quality Cuts applied ([email protected])

    Quality Cuts optimized for sensitivity


    q n-m


    Tdr km3net sensitivity discovery potential
    TDR- KM3NeT Sensitivity & Discovery potential

    Sensitivity and discovery fluxes for point like sources with a E-2 spectrum for 1 year of observation time (full detector 154 DUx2)

    KM3NeT sensitivity 90%CL

    KM3NeT discovery 5s 50%

    IceCube sensitivity 90%CL

    IceCube discovery 5s 50% 2.5÷3.5 above sensitivity flux. (extrapolation from IceCube 40 string configuration)

    unbinned method

    binned method

    |Observed Galactic TeV-g sources (SNR, unidentified, microquazars)

    F. Aharonian et al. Rep. Prog. Phys. (2008)

    Abdo et al., MILAGRO, Astrophys. J. 658 L33-L36 (2007)

    Galactic Centre

    Observationof RXJ1713 at 5s


    Sensitivity and discoverypotentialwillimprovewithunbinnedanalysis

    Developments after the tdr
    Developmentsafter the TDR

    • Major efforttowards the construction and validationofpre-productionmodelof the DU underway

      • Bar with horizontal extent

        • Optimised design and plan for extensive deployment tests defined

      • Multi-PMT Optical Module

        • Development plan for validation of technology and validation procedure defined

      • Optimization of simulation of the detector performance ongoing

      • Deployment of first prototype DU planned end 2011

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    Packaging of a tower with 20 storey for compact deployment
    Packaging of a towerwith 20 storeyfor compact deployment

    2.6 m

    6 m

    1.1 m

    Concluding remarks

    • The KM3NeT TDR is a major milestonefor KM3NeT

    • Km3NeT detector volume willbeabout5 km3

    • KM3NeT activities, togetherwiththe success of the pilotprojects, puts the project on a firmground

    • KM3NeT will cover a largefraction (87%) of the skywith a sensitivity and discoverpotentialthatwillbebetterthananyother neutrino telescope

    Concluding remarks1

    • Major impact also on the deep-seasciences

      • Technologicalsolutionsdevelopedby KM3NeT modified the state-of-the-artfordeep-seasciences

    • Strong synergieswith the EMSO project

      • Collaborationwith INGV and IFREMER alreadyactive at the Catania and Toulonsites

    • Significantaccelerationof the convergenceprocesstowards a uniquetechnicalsolution

    • Finalprototypingprocesswillbecoordinatedwithin the PreparatoryPhase