G ardner’s Art Through the Ages - C 28 Adams -History of Western Art - C 22 The Enlightenment and its Legacy: Art of the Late 18 th through the Mid-19 th Century. Romanticism. 1. Thobaben 2009. From Neoclassicism to Romanticism.
Gardner’s Art Through the Ages - C 28Adams -History of Western Art - C 22 The Enlightenment and its Legacy:Art of the Late 18th through the Mid-19th Century
Antoine-Jean Gros's painting of Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa presents a public image of Napoleon as a compassionate, fearless leader by showing him touching, as if capable of miraculously healing, the sores of a plague victim.
Gros, Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804. Oil on canvas, approx. 17' 5" x 23' 7”Louvre, Paris.
The mosque courtyard with its Moorish arcades in the background reveals Gros's fascination with the exoticismof the Near East
Gros was one of the most honored and respected painters during the reigns of Emperor Napoleon I, King Louis XVIII and King Charles X.
For these monarchs he executed large paintings of contemporary history and allegory, although he was also known as a painter of mythological subjects and of portraits in a Romantic vein.
Gros:Bonaparte on the Bridge at Arcole, 17 November 1796, oil on canvas, 749×584 mm, 1801, Versailles, Château
Based on Chateaubriand's novel, The Genius of Christianity, Girodet-Trioson's The Burial of Atala is the tragic love story of two Native Americans in the wilderness of Louisiana.
The exotic locale and the erotic passion of the story appealed to the public's fascination with what it perceived as the primitivism of Native American tribal life.
Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, The Burial of Atala, 1808. Oil on canvas, approx. 6' 11" x 8' 9". Louvre, Paris.
Examine how the artist Ingres combined classical form with Romantic themes. Ingres also departed from Neoclassicism. A Romantic taste for the exotic and erotic is seen in his Grande Odalisque, which shows a languidly reclining, nude odalisque.
Ingres, Grande Odalisque, 1814. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 11" x 5' 4". Louvre, Paris.
Ingres's paintings of female nudes continued through this period to culminate in The Turkish Bath, on which he worked on from about 1852 until 1863, when he was 83. Some critics have seen in these sensual and voyeuristically conceived nudes the only full expression of Ingres's artistic imagination.
Ingres: Turkish Bath, oil on canvas affixed to panel, diam. 1.08 m, 1863, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Ingres's crisp, gracefully formal portrait of Paganini precisely records with meticulously drawn lines the violinist's features and demeanor.
Ingres, Paganini, 1819. Pencil drawing approx. 12" x 81/2". Louvre, Paris.
Not all of Giovanni Battista Piranesi's prints were of classical ruins.
His series of etched prints of imaginary dungeons, the Carceri (prisons), shows grim, infernal-looking architectural fantasies of massive arches, vaults, piers, and stairways.
Within the gloomy, menacing spaces move small, insect-like human figures.
Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Carceri VII, ca. 1750. Etching, second state, approx. 1' 4" x 1' 9". Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, England.
Henry Fuseli 's The Nightmare illustrates the Romantic taste in night moods of horror, in Gothick fantasies, in the demonic, macabre, and sadistic.
Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781. Oil on canvas, 3' 4" x 4' 2”,Detroit Institute of the Arts
English artist William Blake derived the compositions of many of his paintings and poems from spirits who visited him in dreams.
He believed that rationalism's search for material explanations of the world stifled human nature's spirituality.
In Blake's highly individual vision of God in Ancient of Days the figure's ideal classical anatomy merges with the inner dark dreams of Gothick Romanticism.
William Blake, Ancient of Days, frontispiece of Europe: A Prophecy, 1794. Metal relief etching, hand-colored, approx. 9 1/2" x 6 3/4". Whitworth Art Gallery, University of Manchester.
Goya's "breakthrough" portrait was of the minister of state, the second most powerful man in Spain, The Count of Floridablanca, 1783. Here we see Goya (foreground) kowtowing before his magnificently red-clothed subject, holding up a portrait for his inspection. Floridablanca's pose, gesture and silvery stare are almost godlike in their superiority.
Goya, The Count of Floridablanca, 1783, Oil on canvas, 262 x 166 cm, Banco Urquijo, Madrid
As Painter to the King of Spain, Goya painted a naturalistic portrait of The Family of Charles IV. Besides the King, Queen Maria Luisa, and their children, Goya also included himself.
…Perhaps, in imitation of Diego Velázquez's painting of Las Meninas.
Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800. Oil on canvas, approx. 9' 2" x 11'. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Romance or Fiction? the second most powerful man in Spain,
A tall, slender, dark-haired woman of exceptional beauty, appears several times in Goya’s works as a seductress, traitor and victim. We know who she is: María del Pilar Teresa Cayetana de Silva Álvarez de Toledo, la Duquesa de Alba.Thanks to Goya's paintings and the myth that has blossomed around them, she is one of the great erotic "presences" of world painting. The real nature of her relationship to Goya is less clear than we think.There are only a few suggestions in all his work that their relationship was ever more than a close friendship. He painted one of them in 1797.
Portrait of the Duchess of Alba, 1797, Oil on canvas, 210 x 149 cm, Hispanic Society of America, New York
It's more likely that the duchess represented, for Goya, an erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark maja-hood and sexuality.
The "evidence" of their intimacy, the so-called Naked Maja, isn't evidence at all, because there is nothing to suggest that either it or its clothed double in the Prado actually represents the duchess of Alba. It's a spicy bit of gossip but it got into circulation well after Goya's death.
Goya, The Nude Maja, 1800, Oil on canvas, 97 x 190 cm, Museo del Prado, Madrid
Goya first welcomed the revolution’s promise of political enlightenment but he became disillusioned when the hoped for reforms were short lived. This is reflected in his etching The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, from a series Los Caprichos (The Caprices).
It shows the artist asleep while threatening creatures symbolizing folly and ignorance converge on him. The image may be interpreted as showing what emerges when reason is suppressed.
Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, from Los Caprichos, ca. 1798. Etching and aquatint, 8 1/2" x 6". The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
The French invasion was met with Spanish resistance.In retaliation for an attack on French troops by Spanish patriots on 2 May 1808, the French spent the next day, 3 May 1808, executing Spanish citizens.
Goya painted an emotional record of the ruthless event in 1814.
In support of Ferdinand VII’s claim to the throne, Napoleon sent French troops to Spain, but after ousting Charles IV and Maria Luisa, installed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish throne.
Goya, Third of May 1808, oil on canvas, 2.66×3.45 m, 1814, Madrid, Museo del Prado
Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819-1823. Detail of a detached fresco on canvas, full size approx. 4' 9" x 2' 8”. Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, oil on canvas, 4.91×7.16 m, exhibited 1819, Paris, Musée du Louvre
Géricault's portrait of an Insane Woman (Envy) is an examination of the influence of mental states on the human face, which, it was believed, accurately revealed character.
It reflects the Romantic interest in mental aberration and the irrational states of the mind.
Gericault: Manic Envy, oil on canvas, 711×533 mm, c. 1822, Lyon, Musée des Beaux-Arts
Delacroix's painting of Paganini attempts to convey a sense of the sound and feeling of the great violinist's inspired virtuoso performances.
Compare to Ingres’s drawing.
Eugène Delacroix, Paganini, ca. 1832. Oil on canvas, approx. 1' 5" x 111/2". The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
Eugène Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1826. Oil on canvas, approx. 12' 1" x 16' 3". Louvre, Paris
Delacroix also painted current events, particularly tragic or sensational ones.
Delacroix captured the passion and energy of the Revolution of 1830 in his paintingLiberty Leading the People.
He balances contemporary historical fact (the 1830 Revolution) with poetic allegory (the figure of Liberty) and, through the title and his inclusion of the towers of Notre-Dame in Paris, also locates the scene in a specific time and place.
Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830. Oil on canvas, approx. 8' 6" x 10' 8". Louvre, Paris.
Delacroix's trip to North Africa in 1832 renewed his Romantic conviction that beauty exists in the fierceness of nature, natural processes, and natural beings, especially animals, which he painted in scenes of violent and exotic tiger hunts.
Delacroix, Tiger Hunt, 1854. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 5" x 3'. Louvre, Paris.
FranÁois Rude is best known for his stirring monumental sculptures on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, especially the Departure of the Volunteers in 1792—also called La Marseillaise—executed in 1833-1836.
A great winged figure personifying Liberty is shown above a group of men: She is rushing forward, screaming, urging them on to battle.
FranÁois Rude, La Marseillaise, Arc de Triomphe, Paris, 1833-1836. Approx. 42' x 26'.
Barye was perhaps the finest animal sculptor since antiquity.
His meticulously rendered bronzes have an air of authenticity, suggesting wild animals observed in their native habitats but in actuality resulting from Barye's frequent visits to the Paris zoo.
Barye, Jaguar Devouring a Hare, 1850-1851. Bronze, approx. 1' 4" x 3' 1". Louvre, Paris.
This bronze of a Jaguar Devouring a Hare shows the bestial violence and brute beauty of nature.
77 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark
Ugolino and His Sons, modeled ca. 1860–61, executed in marble 1865–67
Carpeaux's famous group, erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark La Danse graces the facade of the Paris Opéra.
The vivaciousness of the figures and the effect of rippling light and shadow created by the modeling of their surfaces have a strong affinity with Rococo art.
Carpeaux, The Dance,1865–69; formerly on the facade of the Opéra, Paris, now in the Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
In the U.S., William Rimmer, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and Daniel Chester French shared a romantic approach in their allegorical sculptures.
Rimmer's Dying Centaur, 1871, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Saint-Gauden's Adams Memorial, 1886-1891, Rock Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C. and
French's The Angel of Death and the Sculptor (1891-1892), Forest Hills Cemetery, Roxbury, Massachusetts
are moving works, demonstrating the American romantic artists' technical excellence.
A painter and a sculptor, Rimmer worked in clay, not modeling but building up and chiseling; almost always without models or preliminary sketches; and always under technical disadvantages and in great haste; but his sculpture is anatomically remarkable and has an early Greek simplicity and strength.
William Rimmer ,The Dying Centaur, 1869; this cast, 1905, Bronze, 21 1/2 x 25 x 19 in. (54.6 x 63.5 x 48.3 cm)
French was an American sculptor.
His best-known work is the sculpture of a seated Abraham Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.
This less famous work, The Angel of Death and the Sculptor, was commissioned in 1889 to create a memorial for the Milmore Family, to be located in Forest Hill Cemetery in Jamaica
Milmore had been a sculptor himself, French decided to depict the artist at work, with the Angel of Death interrupting his work.
Raised in New York City, St. Gaudens traveled to Europe for further training and artistic study, and then returned to major critical success in the design of monuments commemorating heroes of the American Civil War, many of which still stand.
The Robert Gould Shaw Memorial, designed by Saint-Gaudens and Stanford White, was built in his memory on Beacon and Park Streets in Boston in 1897.
"Clover" Adams, wife of the writer Henry Adams, committed suicide in 1885 by drinking chemicals used to develop photographs. Adams, who steadfastly refused to discuss his wife's death, commissioned Saint-Gaudens to create a memorial that would express the Buddhist idea of nirvana, a state of being beyond joy and sorrow.
Saint-Gaudens's ambiguous figure reflects the search for new insights into the mysteries of life and death.
Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Adams Memorial, modeled 1886-1891, cast 1969, Roman Bronze Works (Founder) 69 7/8 x 39 7/8 x 44 1/2 in. (177.4 x 101.4 x 112.9 cm.) Smithsonian American Art Museum
Freidrich devoted his career to landscape painting. Many feature figures seen from the back, contemplating a mysterious natural setting.
In this painting, we see no face, so it's impossible to know whether the prospect facing the young man is exhilarating, or terrifying, or both.
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog (1818). 94.8 × 74.8 cm, Kunsthalle Hamburg.
Caspar David Friedrich, Cloister Graveyard in the Snow, 1810. Oil on canvas, approx. 3' 11" x 5' 10" (painting destroyed during World War II).
John Constable, The Haywain, 1821. Oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 2". National Gallery, London.
John Constable, Wivenhoe Park, 1816 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark
John Constable, Salisbury Cathedral ca. 1825 erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark
In contrast to the calm Romantic yearnings of Constable’s landscapes, his contemporary J.M.W.Turner strove to portray the uncontrollable and frightening power of nature.
The shipwreck of the Minotaur, oil on canvas.,Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon
J.M.W.Turner, The shipwreck of the erotic "type" that stirred his fantasies of dark Minotaur, oil on canvas.,Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon
Turner's The Slave Ship uses the emotive power of color to convey the tragedy and cruelty of an incident that occurred in 1783, in which the captain of a slave ship ordered the sick and dying slaves thrown overboard. Turner's use of color had an incalculable effect on the development of modern art.
Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840. Oil on canvas, 2' 11 3/4" x 4' 1/4". Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
One group of American landscape painters known as the Hudson River School formed the country’s first art movement.
Led by Thomas Cole (1801-1848), Hudson River artists painted the unspoiled woods and valleys of the Hudson River and Catskill mountains of upstate New York.
During the 1860s, Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902) traveled westward and painted the sublime majesty of the Rocky mountains and Yosemite Valley.
The second generation of Hudson River school artists emerged to prominence after Cole's premature death in 1848, including Cole's prize pupil Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900).
Works by artists of this second generation are often described as examples of Luminism, or the Luminist movement in American art
Thomas Cole, The Oxbow (Connecticut River near Northampton), 1836. Oil on canvas, 6' 4" x 4' 31/2". The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
Cole was primarily a painter of landscapes, but he also painted allegorical works. The most famous of these are the five-part series, The Course of Empire.
Bierstadt was not held in high esteem by critics of his day. His use of uncommonly large canvases was thought to be an egotistical indulgence, as his paintings would invariably dwarf those of his contemporaries when they were displayed together.
The romanticism evident in his choices of subject and in his use of light was felt to be excessive by contemporary critics.
His paintings emphasized
atmospheric elements like
fog, clouds and mist to
accentuate and complement
the feel of his work.
changed details of the
landscape to inspire awe.
Albert Bierstadt, Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California, 1865. Oil on canvas, 641⁄2 x 961⁄2 in. (163.83 x 245.11 cm.).Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Ala.
Albert Bierstadt painted , Looking Down Yosemite Valley, California, 1865. Oil on canvas, 641⁄2 x 961⁄2 in. (163.83 x 245.11 cm.).Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, Ala.
Albert Bierstadt's large painting Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California presents a panoramic view of breathtaking scenery and natural beauty.
Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868.
Bierstadt's paintings, called national attention to the splendor and uniqueness of the regions beyond the Rocky Mountains, and reinforced the popular nineteenth-century doctrine of Manifest Destiny.
Bierstadt, painted Among the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, 1868. Oil on canvas, 5' 11" x 10'. National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution,
While committed to the natural sciences, Church was "always concerned with including a spiritual dimension in his works".
Frederic Church, Heart of the Andes (1859), Metropolitan Museum of Art
In 1853 and 1857, Church traveled in South America. He was inspired by the Prussian explorer Alexander von Humboldt's Cosmos and his exploration of the continent; Humboldt had challenged artists to portray the "physiognomy" of the Andes.
Frederic Church, painted Heart of the Andes (1859), Metropolitan Museum of Art
Church's Twilight in the Wilderness, shows a panoramic view of the sun setting over a majestic landscape, is firmly entrenched in the idiom of the Romantic sublime. Church's idealistic and comforting view contributed to the national mythology of righteousness and divine providence.
Frederic Edwin Church, Twilight In the Wilderness, 1860. Oil on canvas, 101.6 cm. x 162.6 cm. The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio
Winslow Homer's The Veteran in a New Field is a simple and direct commentary on the effects and aftermath of the American Civil War. The painting also comments symbolically about death, both the deaths of the soldiers and of Abraham Lincoln. It also contributed to the continuing myth making about national conditions.
Homer, The Veteran in a New Field, 1865. Oil on canvas, 2' 1/8" x 3' 2 1/8". The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Winslow Homer, The Veteran in a New Field, 1865, Oil on canvas; 24 1/8 x 38 1/8 in. (61.3 x 96.8 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art
When the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt following the fire in 1834, the architect A. W. N. Pugin designed a Neo-Gothic building because of the moral purity and spiritual authenticity he associated with religious architecture of the Middle Ages.
Charles Barry and A. W. N. Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, designed 1835.
John Nash's design for The Royal Pavilion at Brightonexhibits a wide variety of non-Western artistic styles. The exterior is a conglomeration of Islamic domes, minarets, and screens ("Indian Gothic"), while the interior decor ranges from Greece and Egypt to China.
John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England, 1815-1818
A view of the Royal Pavilion as seen from the garden
J. L. Charles Garnier employs a festive and spectacularly theatrical Neo-Baroque design for the Paris Opéra.
J. L. Charles Garnier, the Opéra, Paris, 1861-1874