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NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION. Functions of Nonverbal Communication. Repeats Substitutes Accents Regulates Contradicts. Often culturally derived--can vary in meaning by culture. Often the opposite to the verbal message. Almost impossible not to use NVC.

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Functions of nonverbal communication
Functions of Nonverbal Communication

  • Repeats

  • Substitutes

  • Accents

  • Regulates

  • Contradicts


  • Often culturally derived--can vary in meaning by culture.

  • Often the opposite to the verbal message.

  • Almost impossible not to use NVC.

  • Up to 70 or 80% of communication, between native speakers, is NVC.

  • In a cross-cultural interchange, nonverbals are even more important to understanding the total meaning...


In contrast to spoken language nonverbal language
In contrast to spoken language, nonverbal language:

  • . May or may not be systematized, no rules or regularity.

  • Has no dictionary.

  • Difficult to ask for clarification.

  • . Generally impossible to control.

  • . Nonverbal communication channels are natural, and not learned.



North American Office

Japanese Office


Haptics

The use of touch in communications.

  • Haptics or touch refers to communicating through the use of bodily contact .

  • Some cultures are very comfortable with bodily contact; others avoid it.


In gestures 1991 roger axtell has classified the following cultures as touch and don t touch
In gestures (1991), Roger Axtell has classified the following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.


1. body gestures following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

2. facial expression

3. eye contact

4. posture

Kinesics

The use of your body in communication, or body movements.


A body gestures
A. body gestures following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

  • .


Hand gestures

Do’s: following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

Don'ts:

Hand Gestures

  • gesture naturally

  • gesture nervously

tugging your ear

  • gesture to reinforce your content

scratching your arm

licking your lips

describing size or shape

  • keep your hands in any one position for too long

emphasizing an important point

enumerating a list

fig leaf"

pointing to a specific item in your visual aid

parade rest"

pocket change jingle"

  • use stylized, constantly repeating gestures


  • Palm Gestures following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.


'Dominant Palm Gesture' following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

'Submissive Palm Gesture'

'Authoritative Palm Gesture'


Hand shaking
Hand Shaking following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

'Normal hand shake'

'Submissive Handshake'

'Dominant Handshake'


Leg gestures
Leg Gestures following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

Crossed-Leg Gestures


The standard leg-cross position following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.


The American figure 4 leg lock position following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.


Standing leg cross gestures following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.


Smoking gestures following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

Positive Attitude

Negative Attitude


B facial expressions
B. Facial Expressions following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

  • The face and eyes convey the most expressive types of body language. Research conducted by Leathers (1976) determined these ten types of meaning can be communicated by facial expressions;happiness, suprise, fear, anger, contempt, interest, bewilderment, and determination.


C eye contact
C.Eye Contact following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

The business gaze

The social gaze


The intimate gaze following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

The Shut Others Gestures


D posture
D. Posture following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

  • Posture the way someone stands, sits or walks, can send positive or negative nonverbal messages

  • Posture can convey self- confidence, status and interest

  • Confident people generally have a relaxed posture, yet stand errect and walk with assuarance.

  • Walking with stopped shoulders and slow, hesitating gait projects such negative messages as lack of assurance and confidence


Chronemics
Chronemics following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

  • The use of time in communication.

  • Hall (1983) distinguished 2 patterns of time that govern different cultures: Monochronic Time Schedule and Polychronic Time Schedule


Monochronic and Polychronic following cultures as “touch” and “don’t touch.

Polychronic

Monochronic

  • Does one thing at a time.

  • Time is very serious!

  • Job tends to be more important than family even.

  • Privacy is extremely important.

    -Seldom borrows or lends

    -Works independentl

  • Does several things at a time.

  • Time is important but not sacred.

  • Family and interpersonal relationships are more important than work.

  • Actively involved with others.

(Latin Americans, Mediterranean people, Arabians)

(United States, Germany, Scandinavia and Switzerland. )


Beyond M- Time and P-time, Hall (1959) also differentiatesfive time intervals for arriving late for appointments

  • mumble something time

  • slight apology time

  • midly insulting time

  • rude time

  • downright insulting time


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