Foundations of Christianity. History 476 Spring, 2011. Life of Jesus. The many faces of Jesus (web site). Life of Jesus. Born about 4 A.D./C.E. Grew up in Galilee, northern Israel Became itinerant preacher, Rabbi
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Foundations of Christianity
3. (63) Now, there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works-a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ; (64
L. Michael White:
Professor of Classics and Director of the Religious Studies Program University of Texas at Austin
One of our most important sources for all the history of this period is the Jewish historian, Josephus. Josephus himself grew up in and around Jerusalem; he claims to have been a part of the Pharisaic group. But he was also obviously from a fairly prominent family. He's very important because he lived through and was actually part of the first revolt against Rome.
After the revolt, he then went on to live in a lavish retirement at Rome itself. And there wrote the history of the Jewish War, and also another work, called "The Antiquities of the Jews," a long, extensive history of the Jewish people ... from Biblical days coming down to his own time. Josephus wrote mostly at the end of the first century ... around the year 100, just a few years before and after. And so he gives us a perspective on the whole century of development that had gone before, from the time of Herod the Great down to his own day, when these profound changes were taking place.
And How Reliable Was He as An Historian?
Josephus, as an historian, is something of a puzzle sometimes. On the one hand, he's an eyewitness to many of these events. And in many cases, he's the only source we have for some very important events and stories. On the other hand, Josephus embellishes, as do most ancient historians. They tell the story.
They create speeches for generals, even when they weren't there to hear them first hand. And so, sometimes we have to be careful with these ancient history writers like Josephus. ... Josephus is [also] interesting from another perspective because he clearly embellishes the stories from his own experience. Josephus himself had gone over to the Roman side at the end of the revolt. And so, when we tell some of these stories, it's clear that he's also defending his position ... defending his judgments and his change.
Professor of Religion and Archaeology Duke University
From the Edict of Milan (313) to the Fall of the Last Roman Emperor of the West (476) and the Beginnings of the Conversion of the Barbarians
Council of Nicea, 325
Sack of Rome, 410 by Goths
Age of the Papacy and Converting Barbarians
Pope Gregory the Great, 540-604; Pope from 590-604 C E
Augustine, like so many, plagued by the riddle of life, and “no other single Christian thinker after Paul was to influence so profoundly the Christianity of Western European peoples.” (Latourette,p. 174)
Augustine converted at Milan by Bishop Ambrose in 385. Baptized, along with hi with his son Adeodatus, on Easter, 387. Returning to Africa, his mother Monica died, and Adeodatus a few months later. Eventually persuaded to accept the bishopric of Hippo in North Afric in 391 and re remained at the that post until he died in 430.
Clio, the old Muse of History
City of God also an interpretation of history, which posited it had a beginning, middle, and end, rather than occurring in endless repeating cycles.
As the City of Man, Rome, collapsed, Augustine believed it would be replaced by something better, the City of God. One was an earthly city, and the other heavenly.
The earthly was formed by love of self and pride. The City of God was dominated by the love of God.
St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, is one of Christianity's most widely known figures. But for all his celebrity, his life remains somewhat of a mystery. Many of the stories traditionally associated with St. Patrick, including the famous account of his banishing all the snakes from Ireland, are false, the products of hundreds of years of exaggerated storytelling.
St. Patrick and the Irish, II
Taken Prisoner By Irish Raiders
It is known that St. Patrick was born in Britain to wealthy parents near the end of the fourth century. He is believed to have died on March 17, around 460 A.D. Although his father was a Christian deacon, it has been suggested that he probably took on the role because of tax incentives and there is no evidence that Patrick came from a particularly religious family. At the age of sixteen, Patrick was taken prisoner by a group of Irish raiders who were attacking his family's estate. They transported him to Ireland where he spent six years in captivity. (There is some dispute over where this captivity took place. Although many believe he was taken to live in Mount Slemish in County Antrim, it is more likely that he was held in County Mayo near Killala.) During this time, he worked as a shepherd, outdoors and away from people. Lonely and afraid, he turned to his religion for solace, becoming a devout Christian. (It is also believed that Patrick first began to dream of converting the Irish people to Christianity during his captivity.)
Guided By Visions
After more than six years as a prisoner, Patrick escaped. According to his writing, a voice-which he believed to be God's-spoke to him in a dream, telling him it was time to leave Ireland.
To do so, Patrick walked nearly 200 miles from County Mayo, where it is believed he was held, to the Irish coast. After escaping to Britain, Patrick reported that he experienced a second revelation-an angel in a dream tells him to return to Ireland as a missionary. Soon after, Patrick began religious training, a course of study that lasted more than fifteen years. After his ordination as a priest, he was sent to Ireland with a dual mission-to minister to Christians already living in Ireland and to begin to convert the Irish. (Interestingly, this mission contradicts the widely held notion that Patrick introduced Christianity to Ireland.)
Mohammed preaching, with historically inaccurate landscape and clothing (a common problem in medieval and Renaissance paintings, which usually showed fashions contemporary with the time the painting was made, rather than costumes of the era depicted). Illustration ca. 1400-1425, taken from Boccaccio's De Casibus Virorum Illustrium (early 15th-century French translation by Laurent de Premierfait); drawn by the "Master of Rohan." The manuscript is currently in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. The same illustration in the context of its manuscript page can be seen here. According to the iconography of the time, the dove on Mohammed's shoulder indicates that he is a false prophet trying to convince his listeners that he is associated with the Holy Spirit (of which the dove is a symbol).
Reformist movement within monastic tradition, Cluny founded 909. Goal: rid the Church of abuses (,for instance, simony, the buying and selling of clerical offices, etc.) insistence on clerical celibacy, poverty and obedience.
Rising conflict between Papacy and Emperor of Holy Roman Empire.