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C.P. American History Chapter 7 Growth and Division 1816-1832. ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS 1817 TO 1825. Spirit of Nationalism in US patriotism or national oneness Country is united, confident, and growing 1791-1819, 9 states joined the original 13. One political party--- Republican party

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slide1

C.P. American History

Chapter 7

Growth and Division

1816-1832

slide2

ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

1817 TO 1825

  • Spirit of Nationalism in US
    • patriotism or national oneness
    • Country is united, confident, and growing
    • 1791-1819, 9 states joined the original 13.
  • One political party---Republican party
  • Respect from Europe
  • Monroe first president to visit all states.
  • Boston newspaper declared an “Era of Good Feelings” had began.
    • But, time period was not free of problems.
slide3

ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

  • Cultural Nationalism
    • Patriotic themes infused every aspect of American society from books and paintings of Revolutionary heroes to Noah Webster’s blue-backed speller that promoted patriotism
  • Economic Nationalism
    • Running parallel with cultural nationalism was a political movement to support the growth of the nation’s economy--------AMERICAN SYSTEM
  • Political Nationalism
    • Movement to bring about the support for national government is over the states. Supreme court decisions support the concept of national government over the states.
slide4

MONROE\'S PRESIDENCY

1. Served two terms: 1817 to 1825

    • Called the Era of Good Feelings

2. Unite the nation---1816---”promote nationalism”

    • American System --- link the country together
    • Expansion of US
      • Rush/Bagot Treaty
      • Adams/Onis Treaty or Florida Purchase Treaty

3. Self Defense Doctrine:Monroe Doctrine, 1823

4. Sectional differences

  • Missouri Compromise---1821

“National oneness” = Nationalism

slide5

JAMES MONROE

1817 TO 1825

  • UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL
  • Born in Virginia in 1758,
  • Attended the College of William and Mary,
  • Fought with Continental Army
  • Practiced law in Virginia.
  • Elected United States Senator
  • Helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase.
  • Elected President in 1816 and served from 1817 to 1825.
  • Era of Good Feelings

President James Monroe

slide6

ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

  • National Transportation system
    • Cumberland Road and Erie Canal first internal improvements to unite the US
    • the first steamboat on western waters was in 1811.
    • 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation
    • 1850 to 1860 the railroad is added
  • The Land Act of 1820
    • gave the West its wish by authorizing a buyer to purchase 80 acres of land at a minimum of $1.25 an acre in cash;
    • the West demanded transportation.
slide7

Help unite the country as well as improve the economy and the infant industry….

  • Because of the British blockade during the War of 1812, it was essential for internal transportation improvements.
the panic of 1819

ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

The Panic of 1819
  • Largely the fault of the Second Bank of the United States’ tightening of credit in an effort to control inflation
    • Many state banks closed
    • The value of money fell
    • There were large increases in unemployment, bankruptcies, and imprisonment for debt
  • Depression was most severe in the West
  • The economic crisis changed many Western voters’ political outlook
henry clay s american system

AMERICAN SYSTEM

Henry Clay’s American System
  • Congress’s attempt to unite the US
    • National transportation system of roads, canals, steamships and rivers.
    • 1800 to 1850 roads, canals and rivers first forms of transportation---
  • Provide economic growth
    • Americans buying American goods
    • American self-sufficiency.
  • Protective Tariff to promote infant industry
    • Tariff of 1816
  • 2nd BUS to promote a stronger economy
    • Rechartered in 1816
slide10

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

JUDICIAL AUTHORITY

Supreme Court has the power to declare a law unconstitutional with the principle of judicial review.

NATIONALISM

The National Government is over the states.

PROPERTY RIGHTS

Private property is sacred and contracts legal.

slide11

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

  • Marbury vs. Madison, 1803
    • Case: William Marbury, a Federalist and a “midnight appointment” of President Adams, did not receive his commission from Sec. of State, James Madison. Marbury asked the SC to issue a “writ of mandamus” forcing Madison to deliver his commission.
    • Decision/Reason: Marshall dismissed suit, but in doing so struck down part of Judiciary Act of 1789 because SC had no authority to give Marbury his commission.
    • Significance: Established precedent of “judicial review”and the Supreme Court, not states had power to declare laws of Congress unconstitutional.
slide12

MARBURY VS MADISON

  • Prior to this case, the Supreme Court had been the weakest of the three branches of government.
  • Earlier, the belief was the states could nullify a law
  • 1803, the Supreme Court established its role as the final arbitrator (authority) of the meaning of the Constitution and its position of equality.
  • By setting a precedent for judicial reviewor the Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional not the states or Congress.
  • It also “sent the message” that the National Government is the last authority thus reinforcing Marshall’s belief in a strong central government over the states.
slide13

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

  • Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
    • Case: involved Georgia legislature, bribed, granted 35 million acres in the Yazoo River, Mississippi to private speculators. Next legislature cancelled transaction. Appealed to the Supreme Court.
    • Decision/Reason: SC concluded a state could not pass legislation invalidating a contract thus protecting property rights against popular pressures. State law cannot impair contracts violates Constitution
    • Significance: Overturned a state decision because the legislative grant was a contract and national govt. is over the states.
shaping the government
Shaping the Government

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

  • Martin v. Hunter’s Lease (1816)
    • The Supreme Court established the principle that it had jurisdiction over state courts in cases involving constitutional rights
slide15

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

  • McCulloch v. Maryland(1819)
    • Case: The state of MD tried to collect a tax from the Second Bank of the United States
    • Decision/Reason: Using a loose interpretation of the Constitution, Marshall ruled that the federal government had the implied power to create the bank (which was in question)
    • Significance: A state could not tax a federal institution because “the power to tax is the power to destroy” and that federal laws are supreme over state laws
slide16

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

  • Cohens v. Virginia(1821)
    • Case: In VA, the Cohens were convicted of selling Washington, D.C. lottery tickets authorized by Congress
    • Decision/Reason: Marshall and the Court upheld the conviction. Case established the principle that the SC could review a state court’s decision involving any of the powers of the federal government
    • Significance: Solidified the belief that the Supreme Court has the last and final say in law.
slide17

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

  • Gibbons v. Ogden(1821)
    • Case: NY state granted a monopoly to a steamboat company that conflicted with a charter authorized by Congress
    • Decision/Reason: Marshall ruled NY monopoly was unconstitutional, establishing the federal govt’s broad control of interstate commerce. Congress regulates commerce.
    • Significance: The decision secures the concept of a common market and prevents states from impeding (disrupting) commerce.
slide18

MARSHALL\'S DECISIONS

JUDICIAL AUTHORITY

Marbury vs. Madison

NATIONALISM

McCulloch vs. Maryland

Gibbons vs. Ogden

Cohens vs. Virginia

PROPERTY RIGHTS

Dartmouth College vs. Woodward

Fletcher vs. Peck

slide19

Westward Expansion

  • Florida Becomes Part of US
    • After War of 1812, Spain had difficulty governing Florida
    • Seminole Indians, runaway slaves, and white outlaws conducted raids into U.S. territory and retreated to safety across the Florida border
  • President Monroe commissioned General Andrew Jackson to stop the raiders
    • Jackson led a force into Florida, destroyed Seminole villages, and hanged 2 Seminole chiefs
    • Jackson captured Pensacola and drove out the Spanish governor
slide20

Westward Expansion

  • Adams-Onis Treaty (1818)
    • Spain turned over
      • western Florida along with all to the east
      • Claims in the Oregon Territory to the U.S.
    • US agreed
      • to pay $5 million to Spain
      • to give up any territorial claims to Texas
slide21

49th Parallel

Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1818 with Great Britain

Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 with Spain

Texas

slide23

monroe doctrine

MONROE DOCTRINE

  • In foreign affairs Monroe proclaimed the fundamental policy that bears his name, Monroe Doctrine.
  • Monroe was responding to the threat that Europe might try to aid Spain in winning back her former Latin American colonies.
  • Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams wanted to protect new “republics” in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Great Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re-conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming "hands off."
slide24

monroe doctrine

MONROE DOCTRINE

  • Adams advised, "It would be more candid ... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war."
  • Monroe accepted Adams\'s advice.
  • Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. ". . . the American continents,"
  • He stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power."
slide26

New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions.

  • US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere
slide27

MONROE DOCTRINE

  • Referred to as America’s Self Defense Doctrine.
  • It is a continuation of President Washington’s neutrality and isolationist policies.
  • Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe

US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere

No European Colonization in the Americas

US recognized existing European Colonies

Monroe Doctrine

US will stay out of European affairs

slide28

What actions strengthened the federal government?

creation of protective

tariff

Creation of new national

bank

Actions

Decisions by Supreme

Court established dominance

of the nation over states

Proclamation of the

Monroe Doctrine

new questions and issues

ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS

New Questions and Issues
  • Greatest importance to western states were:
    • “Cheap money” (easy credit) from state banks rather than from the Bank of the United States
    • Land made available at low prices by the government
    • Improved transportation
  • Westerners could not agree whether to permit slavery or exclude it
slide30

SECTIONALISM

U.S. was becoming divided into 3 separate sections with each trying to promote their self-interest.

  • SOUTH
  • Cotton-growingJohn C. Calhoun
  • _______________
  • Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System
  • Increasingly supportive of states’ rights
  • Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.
  • WEST
  • Frontier agricultureHenry Clay
  • ______________
  • Supported internal improvements and American System.
  • Wanted cheap land
  • Loyal to the U.S. Govt.
  • Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue
  • NORTHEAST
  • Business and ManufacturingDaniel Webster_______________
  • Wanted Tariffs
  • Backed internal improvements
  • End to cheap public land
  • Increasingly nationalistic
  • Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

EconomyLeader

____________

Role ofGovernment

slide31

SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES

  • NORTHEAST
  • Business and ManufacturingDaniel Webster____________
  • Wanted Tariffs
  • Backed internal improvements
  • Wanted end to cheap public land
  • Increasingly nationalistic
  • Against Slavery and believed the U.S. Govt. must abolish it.

EconomyLeader

__________

Role ofGovernment

slide32

SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES

  • SOUTH
  • Cotton growing
  • John C. Calhoun
  • _____________
  • Opposed tariffs and government spending on American System
  • Increasingly supportive of states’ rights
  • Pro-slavery and opposed any steps of the U.S. Govt. to try and abolish it.

EconomyLeader

__________

Role ofGovernment

slide33

SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES

  • WEST
  • Frontier agriculture
  • Henry Clay
  • _____________
  • Supported internal improvements
  • Wanted cheap land
  • Loyal to the U.S. Govt.
  • Against slavery but some supported letting the people decide the slavery issue

EconomyLeader

__________

Role ofGovernment

slide34

MISSOURI COMPROMISE

In 1819, Missouri, first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood

  • Threatened balance of power in Congress
    • 11 free states
    • 11 slave states
  • The Tallmadge amendment
    • prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri
    • All slaves born in Missouri after the territory became a state would be freed at the age of 25.
    • Passed by the House, not in the Senate.
    • The North controlled the House, and the South had enough power to block it in the Senate.
slide35

MISSOURI COMPROMISE

After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise

  • Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state
  • Maine was to be admitted as a free state
  • In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 3630\', slavery was prohibited
slide37

MISSOURI COMPROMISE

  • In 1819, Missouri became the first part of the Louisiana Purchase to apply for statehood
    • Threatened the balance of power in Congress
      • 11 free states
      • 11 slave states
  • After months of heated debate in Congress, Henry Clay won majority support for 3 bills that represented a compromise
    • Missouri was to be admitted as a slaveholding state
    • Maine was to be admitted as a free state
    • In the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of latitude 3630\', slavery was prohibited
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