Iat 202 lecture 06
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Iat 202 lecture 06. s usan clements-vivian. Final project examples. http :// vimeo.com/32974077 http:// vimeo.com/32956296. today. Nature of Light Lighting purposes and functions Nature of shadows Outer and inner orientation Lighting Techniques

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Iat 202 lecture 06

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Iat 202 lecture 06

  • susanclements-vivian


Final project examples

  • http://vimeo.com/32974077

  • http://vimeo.com/32956296


today

  • Nature of Light

  • Lighting purposes and functions

  • Nature of shadows

  • Outer and inner orientation

  • Lighting Techniques

    **Concepts in this lecture from Sight, Sound and Motion, chapter 2


Light and shadow

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUGPa_t8700&list=PL12836B21C8C97627


lighting

Lighting is the direct manipulation of light and shadows for a specific communication purpose. – Zettle

Suggested reading Sight, Sound and Motion, chapter 2


lighting

You clarify and intensify an event through light (as you do through composition, editing, sequencing, sound….).


light and shadow

  • Lighting is about controlling shadows not illuminating an object.


Shadow and the brain

http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/brain-games/watch-this-pictures/#/brain-games-optical-illusion_38884_600x450.jpg


Attached shadow reversal


Attached shadow reversal


Lighting: outer orientation

  • Shape

  • Texture

  • Position

  • Time of year

  • Time of day


Attached SHADOWS

“Attached shadows on faces create a dramatic composition in John Huston’s Asphalt Jungle”


Cast shadows

Last Year at Marienbad


CAST SHADOWS


Fall off


Controlling fall off


Controlling Falloff -- manipulation of fill light

  • directional beam sharp fall off

  • floodlights produce slow fall off

  • slowing fall off - attached shadow area somewhat transparent and reducing contrast between light & dark

  • through amount of fill light or w/ reflectors

  • foggy day / no harsh shadows

  • not illuminated side that tells us about lighting but the shadows


Stand lighting set-up

Three point lighting

Triangular arrangement of lights

Key is main source of light and

reveals shape of object.

Placed above and in front of head

Fill light is placed on opposite side of camera as key and fills in the shadows

Back light shines on back of head to increase separation from


Lighting set-up?


Lighting set-up

Key light

Key light

Background light (barn doors to prevent spill)

Back light

Background left

Baselight (slow fall off)


Lighting set-up

Key light

Key light

Background light (barn doors to prevent spill)

Back light

Background left

Baselight (slow fall off)


Lighting set-up

Key light

Key light

Background light (barn doors to prevent spill)

Back light

Background left

Baselight (slow fall off)


Lighting set-up

Key light

Key light

Background light (barn doors to prevent spill)

Back light

Background left

Baselight (slow fall off)


Lighting approaches

There are two main categories for lighting:

  • high key lighting

  • low key lighting


High key / flat lighting

Key and fill lights are almost equal

Very little contrast between lightest and darkest areas of set

Almost no shadows – used for musicals, comedies and game shows


Low key

Key strong, very little fill light

Strong contrast between lightest and

darkest areas of set

Creates strong shadows –

suspense genres like film noir


Chiaroscuro

Organic – scene looks realisticDirectional – leads eye to part of the frame

Spatial – to define spaceand balance composition

Thematic – supportstheme or story

Emotional – establish or emphasize a mood


Inland Empire, David Lynch


Inland Empire, David Lynch


Inland Empire, David Lynch


Chiaroscuro Lighting

Fast fall-off (hard light) with light/dark contrast

Articulates space, intensify three dimensions

Expressive quality – light comes from within scene

Supper at Emmaus

(Caravaggio)


Rembrandt Lighting


Rembrandt Lighting

Selectivity and fast fall-off

Only some areas are lit whileothers are unlit or under-litThe fall-off is fast but there is enough light to make attachedshadows transparent

Background is dark but has enough illumination to set offoutline of central figure


Cameo lighting

Illuminates subject only

Usually key and back lights illuminate subjectsNo fill light is used

Subjects stand out againstdarker background


Cameo lighting


Flat lighting

Diffuse light

Light seems to come from all

directions

Opposite of chiaroscuroVery slow falloff and transparent attached and cast shadows

High key, implies high energy, efficiency, mechanization, depersonalization


Flat lighting


Other considerations

  • Diffuse / soft

  • hard

  • Side

  • Back


Diffuse Light or Soft Light


Direct Light or Hard Light


Silhouette Lighting

Both chiaroscuro and flat

Chiaroscuro because of lightand dark contrast

Flat because it emphasizescontour rather than volume ortexture

Opposite of cameo as it lightsbackground and not figure


SIDE LIGHTING


Direction of Light: Emphases

Shape,

Outline

Flattens

The Image

Sculpts

Volume


White Balance


Clicker question: best description of lighting

High key light

Low key light

Prescriptive

Chiaroscuro

Flat


Iat 202 lecture 06

fin


Widescreen Test Pattern (16:9)

Aspect Ratio Test

(Should appear circular)

4x3

16x9


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