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Advancing Women in Science and Engineering. Boston University April 6, 2007. Two Main Goals. Describe “institutional transformation” effort at UM Discuss key elements of institutional transformation that can be adapted and adopted at other institutions.

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Advancing women in science and engineering

Advancing Women in Science and Engineering

Boston University

April 6, 2007


Two main goals
Two Main Goals

  • Describe “institutional transformation” effort at UM

  • Discuss key elements of institutional transformation that can be adapted and adopted at other institutions


Why should we focus on advancing women in science and engineering
Why should we focus on advancing women in science and engineering?

  • Underrepresentation on the faculty in science and engineering

  • “The higher, the fewer”




Nsf advance program goals
NSF ADVANCE Program Goals Departments, AY2001

To improve the institutional climate for tenured and tenure-track women faculty in science and engineering

To improve recruitment, retention, and promotion of tenured and tenure-track women faculty in science and engineering

To increase visibility and authority of women engineering and science faculty in leadership positions


Core aspect of any change effort
Core Aspect of Any Change Effort Departments, AY2001

  • Believing change is necessary here

  • At UM, this entailed

    • Examination of pattern of representation in different disciplines

      • Low representation

      • High turnover

    • Assessment of the “climate” for women and minorities

      • Less satisfied overall

      • Felt disrespected, overworked, and undervalued

      • Not mentored as well as men

    • Assessment of key professional markers: recruitment, promotion, salary


Um approach to advance
UM Approach to ADVANCE Departments, AY2001

Once persuaded that situation was not equitable…

  • Goal: institutional change

  • At all levels of institution

    • Individual

    • Department

    • College

    • University

  • Strategy: change institutional policies and practices (not “fix the women”)


  • Institutional change in four key domains
    Institutional Change in Departments, AY2001Four Key Domains

    • Recruitment

    • Nature of faculty interactions (“climate”)

    • Institutional policy and practice review

    • Development of Network of Women Scientists and Engineers


    Recruitment influencing a departmental practice at um
    Recruitment — Influencing a Departmental Practice at UM Departments, AY2001

    • Creation of STRIDE (committee on Strategies and Tactics for Recruiting to Improve Diversity and Excellence)

      • Eight (now ten) science and engineering senior faculty

      • Studied the social science literature

    • Encourage colleagues to adopt better, equitable recruiting strategies


    Stride
    STRIDE Departments, AY2001

    Seated (left to right): Melvin Hochster, Mathematics; John Vandermeer, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology; Martha E. Pollack, Computer Science and Engineering; and Samuel Mukasa, Geological Sciences.Standing (left to right): Gary Huffnagle, Internal Medicine, Microbiology & Immunology; Charles Brown, Economics; Abigail Stewart, Psychology, Women’s Studies; Katherine Spindler, Microbiology and Immunology; Carol Fierke, Chemistry; Mark Chesler, Sociology (consultant to STRIDE); Pamela Raymond, Senior Counselor to the Provost, MCDB; and Wayne Jones, Materials Science and Engineering.


    Recruitment analysis of the problem
    Recruitment: Analysis of the Problem Departments, AY2001

    STRIDE offers:

    • Conceptual tools

      • Gender schemas

      • Evaluation bias

      • Critical mass

      • Accumulation of disadvantage

    • Empirical evidence

      • Evaluations of CVs

      • Evaluation of fellowship and grant proposals

      • Impact on salary of different background factors

      • Influence of small biases on institutional outcomes

      • Leadership and the head of the table

    • Explanatory model


    Lowered career success rate

    Performance is underestimated Departments, AY2001

    Accumulation of disadvantage

    Evaluationbias

    Lack of critical mass

    Gender schemas

    Lowered career success rate


    Does stride work
    Does STRIDE work? Departments, AY2001

    This table shows the proportion of men and women hired in each of the three colleges that employ the largest number of scientists and engineers at the University of Michigan.

    Note the marked, and statistically significant, increase in the proportion of women hired, comparing the two “pre-STRIDE” years with the four “post-STRIDE” years

    (chi square=10.54, p=.01).


    Why does stride work
    Why does STRIDE work? Departments, AY2001

    • Credible source

      • Scientists and engineers

      • Based on research findings

    • Explanatory model

      • Organizes information (for recall)

      • Releases from guilt

    • Concrete actions


    Changing the climate for faculty interactions crlt players
    Changing the Climate for Faculty Interactions: CRLT Players Departments, AY2001

    • Performed sketches on multicultural classroom dynamics

    • Created sketches for us on:

      • Faculty meeting

      • Faculty advising faculty

      • Tenure committee meeting

    “Faculty Meeting” sketch


    Social science research findings represented in sketches
    Social Science Research Findings Represented in Sketches Departments, AY2001

    • Perceptions of “tokens”

    • Role of leadership

      • Power of framing of issues

    • Gender dynamics/rank dynamics

      • Interruptions

      • Listening

      • Who has power and influence

    • Implications of dynamics for outcomes

    • Who can change the dynamics and how


    Reviewing institutional policies consciousness raising in an institution
    Reviewing Institutional Policies — “Consciousness-Raising” in an Institution

    • Committee on Gender in Science and Engineering convened by President and Provost

    • Sub-committees chaired by 3 deans made recommendations on:

      • Faculty Tracks and Work/Family Integration

      • Recruitment, Retention, and Leadership

      • Evaluation and Promotion of Faculty

    • View policies from perspective of women scientists and engineers

    President Mary Sue Coleman (above) and Provost Teresa Sullivan (below), Co-chairs of the GSE Committee


    Gse sub committee composition
    GSE Sub-Committee Composition “Consciousness-Raising” in an Institution

    • 21 senior faculty in science and engineering:

      • 12 men, 9 women

      • 6 colleges (LSA, Medicine, Engineering, Public Health, Pharmacy, and Dentistry)

      • 13 departments within the 4 largest colleges

    Left to right:

    Terrence J. McDonald, Dean, College of Literature, Science, and the Arts;

    Stephen Director, former Dean, College of Engineering; and

    Allen Lichter, former Dean, Medical School


    Significant policy changes
    Significant Policy Changes “Consciousness-Raising” in an Institution

    • Changes in recruitment practices (e.g., required STRIDE training, shortlist review)

    • Changes in annual salary review practices (adopt standardized template)

    • Formalization of expectations about career advising

    • More flexible tenure clock, with explicit framing of “compensation for time lost” vs. “extra time”

    • Family-friendly policies

      • Generous family leave (for the US) for both men and women

      • Dual career program with budget


    Influence of social science research and feminist and organizational theory
    Influence of Social Science Research and Feminist and Organizational Theory

    • Importance of institutional policies as articulations of norms

    • Focus on mitigating:

      • Evaluation bias in recruitment and evaluation

      • Stigma in use of individual-focused policies

      • Location of parenting in female faculty

      • Rigidity of career track grounded in men’s lives


    Creation of network of women scientists and engineers
    Creation of Network of Organizational TheoryWomen Scientists and Engineers

    • Support positive collective identity

      • Exposure to new experiences of each other as helpful and interesting

    • Encourage alliances between women and men

    • Create support structures that will last (peer mentoring)

    Network Dinner, Spring 2006


    Use network to define goals
    Use Network to Define Goals Organizational Theory

    Use Network to surface issues

    • Initial meeting to create agenda

    • Annual meeting to voice issues to decision-makers

    • Regular survey feedback on activities wanted and valued

    • ADVANCE staff visibly available for advice/support/trouble-shooting

    Faculty with the UM Provost at the Network Dinner, Fall 2006


    Um approach to advance1
    UM Approach to ADVANCE Organizational Theory

    • Goal: institutional change

    • At all levels of institution

      • Individual

      • Department

      • College

      • University

  • Strategy: change institutional policies and practices (not “fix the women”)


  • Emphasized changes in structures and practices
    Emphasized Changes in Organizational TheoryStructures and Practices

    • Recruitment practices and STRIDE committee

    • CRLT Players and “climate”

    • Policy changes and GSE committee

      • Changes in practices of review committees

      • Salary and space monitored

    • Network

    • Individual changes crucial to institutional transformation


    Stride committee s experience as prototype for individual change
    STRIDE Committee’s Experience as Prototype for Individual Change

    “I was surprised by the number of studies…on the nature of the bias, and where the bias comes from…there’s been a lot of really, really good research that’s been done, you know, these studies are fantastic.”


    “The process that we went through worked so well…the process being to identify a group of senior faculty, both men and women, in the sciences and engineering, who have shown some evidence of being concerned about these issues, but who clearly don’t know all the literature. And I think every one of us…is like that…. We all had some previous commitment, but what we realized when we got together and started actually looking at the data and learning together was that we didn’t understand, we didn’t really know what was going on, we really were quite naïve…that discovery process, I think, was so critical to building the passion that the current group has.”


    Experience for women stride participants

    “I would say the most surprising thing that I’ve learned was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    Experience for Women STRIDE Participants


    Have we made real progress
    Have we made real progress? was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    Institutional Changes

    • Lively network of women scientists and engineers on campus

    • Significantly increased faculty recruitment (women increased from 13% to 17% of science and engineering faculty)

    • Went from having no woman chair of a major science or engineering department to having 6 (of 25)

    • Formal policies and practices changed

    • Individual changes

    • Climate assessed in 2005 survey of women faculty: less sexist and more positive


    Generalizing from um
    Generalizing from UM was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Particular institution

    • Top leadership was committed

    • Infusion of resources and imprimatur of NSF

      What are lessons for others?


    Single most important low cost action
    Single Most Important Low Cost Action was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Create and activate network of women scientists and engineers

      • Provide forum for meetings

      • Create linkages between scientists and engineers and faculty in other disciplines with relevant knowledge (women’s studies, organizational behavior, social sciences)

      • Create vehicle for two-way communication between the women and institutional leaders

      • Encourage collaboration with male allies


    Formal expression of principles matters
    Formal Expression of Principles Matters was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Articulating general principles of commitment (as with “MIT-9”)

      • Requires sustained reflection

      • Creates consensus

      • Improves morale for group currently disenfranchised


    Formal Principles: was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    The Baltimore Charter for Women in Astronomy (1992): Preamble

    • We hold as fundamental that:

    • Women and men are equally capable of doing excellent science.

    • Diversity contributes to, rather than conflicts with, excellence in science.

    • Current recruitment, training, evaluation and award systems often prevent the equal participation of women.

    • Formal and informal mechanisms that are effectively discriminatory are unlikely to change by themselves. Both thought and action are necessary to ensure equal participation for all.

    • Increasing the number of women in astronomy will improve the professional environment and improving the environment will increase the number of women.

    This Charter addresses the need to develop a scientific culture within which both women and men can work effectively and within which all can have satisfying and rewarding careers. Our focus is on women but actions taken to improve the situation of women in astronomy should be applied aggressively to those minorities even more disenfranchised.


    Baltimore Charter Call to Action was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    Improving the situation of women in astronomy will benefit, and is the responsibility of, astronomers at all levels. Department heads, observatory directors, policy committee chairs, and funding agency officials have a particular responsibility to facilitate the full participation of women: to nurture new talent, to ensure the effectiveness of teaching, and to examine and correct patterns of inequity. The profession should be responsible for regular review and assessment of the status of women in astronomy, in pursuit of equality and fairness for all.


    Review of policies and practices
    Review of Policies and Practices was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Policy review must include real possibility for policy change

      • Include women scientists and engineers

      • Broadly representative

      • Led by those responsible for implementation

    • Examine the core practices of the institution

      • Recruitment

      • Evaluation

      • Professional interaction (“climate”)

      • Gather and evaluate data


    Examine and change policies and practices
    Examine and Change Policies and Practices was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Consider policies and practices that currently exist and are problems

      …as well as…

    • Missing policies and practices

      • Routine reviews of equity in promotion, salary, etc.


    End counterproductive practices at many levels
    End Counterproductive Practices at Many Levels was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Meetings too early or too late

    • Appointing women and underrepresented minorities (URM) to too many committees

    • Never asking women or URM to chair committees or departments

    • Tolerating uncivil behavior, which always affects less powerful most


    Remember the different constituencies involved in culture change
    Remember the Different Constituencies was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.” Involved in Culture Change

    • Top administrative leadership

    • Department chairs

    • Tenure review committees

    • Salary/annual review committees

    • Hiring/recruitment committees

    • Faculty who are “too important” to serve on committees

    • New faculty from other institutions

    • Young faculty


    Increase leadership capacity in this area
    Increase Leadership Capacity in this Area was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Provide new leadership training

      • Current chairs and other line administrators

      • Women scientists and engineers

      • New full professors


    Create forms of recognition that advance the goals
    Create Forms of Recognition that Advance the Goals was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Reward individuals for:

      • Thoughtful mentoring

      • Service that advances this agenda

    • Reward departments that take active steps to create positive climate

    • Reward chairs and other administrators for successful efforts in this domain


    Take ideas from many sources
    Take Ideas from Many Sources was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    • Three rounds of ADVANCE institutions funded for “institutional transformation”

      • Web sites with many resources

      • Chair training

      • Leadership programs

      • Sample recruitment handbooks

      • More…

    • Particular institutions noted for innovative changes (MIT)

    • Books: Virgina Valian’s Why so slow


    Transforming science and engineering advancing academic women
    Transforming Science and was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”Engineering: Advancing Academic Women

    • Abigail Stewart, Janet Malley, and Danielle LaVaque-Manty, co-editors

    • University of Michigan Press, 2007

    • Nineteen chapters in four sections:

      • Context

      • Providing institutional support to individual women

      • Transforming institutional practices

      • Learning from change


    New ideas will be generated here
    New ideas will be generated here! was what unconscious bias was, and how prevalent it is, and how it works…I discovered …that in my own career I had been coping by denying that I had ever had any problems…it turned out to be much more of an emotional voyage than I had ever expected it to be.”

    New deadline for NSF ADVANCE PAID (Partnerships for Adaptation, Innovation, and Dissemination) program to be announced soon


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