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What is the Current State of Transition Services For DHH Students? A Nation-wide Survey of Programs. ACE-DHH 2008 Conference Pacific Adventures: New Waves in Deaf Education February 21, 2008 Pamela Luft Jonathan Steele, Olivia Chapman-Krise, Alison Ramsay Kent State University. Purpose.

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What is the current state of transition services for dhh students a nation wide survey of programs

What is the Current State of Transition Services For DHH Students? A Nation-wide Survey of Programs

ACE-DHH 2008 Conference

Pacific Adventures: New Waves in Deaf Education

February 21, 2008

Pamela Luft

Jonathan Steele, Olivia Chapman-Krise, Alison Ramsay

Kent State University


Purpose
Purpose Students?

  • Collect data from a national survey of programs serving Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (DHH) students at secondary levels

    • Update current state of knowledge

    • Use directory listing from the American Annals of the Deaf, 2007.

    • Include all 50 states and DC

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Study rationale
Study Rationale Students?

  • Few systematic studies examine the extent and nature of transition services for DHH students

  • Allen, Rawlings, & Schildroth (1989) was one of the last comprehensive reviews of these services.

    • Program, student, and counselor surveys

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Study rationale1
Study Rationale Students?

  • National Longitudinal Transition Surveys #1 & #2

    • Had low response rate from programs

    • Only 39% of parents rated their DHH children as doing “very well” on functional skills (reading signs, telling time, counting change)(Valdes, Williamson, and Wagner, 1990)

  • DHH students were less likely to be involved in productive or positive post-school activities than their hearing peers

    • work, school, homemaking(Bullis, Bull, Johnson, & Peters, 1995)

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Study rationale2
Study Rationale Students?

  • Publications since have described transition concerns but have not collected program data

    • Bowe, 2003; Danek & Busby, 1999; Luckner, 2002.

  • Vocational Rehabilitation data

    • DHH competitive employment placements showed lower rates than other disability categories and were placed in jobs requiring lower skill levels (Capella, 2003a, 2003b).

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Study rationale3
Study Rationale Students?

  • Substantial enrollment changes since 1989.

    • 1985:

      • 61% of DHH students (16-22 yrs) served in special schools

    • 2002:

      • 28.5% of DHH students (18-21yrs) served in special schools (U.S. Dept of Educ., 2004)

      • 13.8% DHH (6-21yrs)

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Study rationale4
Study Rationale Students?

  • Strong vocational program emphasis in residential schools

    • Is this vocational/transition focus being lost?

  • What is the impact of placement change patterns on transition preparation of DHH students?

    • What are programs offering and not offering?

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Study methodology
Study Methodology Students?

  • State contacts:

    • Program categorization

      • Residential

      • Large: 35 or more students, K-12

      • Small: 34 or fewer students

      • Programs without accurate number listings are contacted and then categorized.

    • Random selection of 15% of programs

      • For each state and each school category:

        • 15% selection rate, rounded to the nearest whole number.

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Call rule formula
Call Rule Formula Students?

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Methodology
Methodology Students?

  • Random Selection of Programs

    • Call rule determines number of programs to contact:

      • per school category &

      • within each state

    • Random number generator

      • Sequential (non-repeating numbers) list

      • Separate lists for each state and school category

      • Generator: www.random.org/.

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Methodology1
Methodology Students?

  • Program Contact Protocol

    • Directory listing by category = program number

    • Matched to random numbers list

      • Continued until 15% or at least one per program category responded

    • Contact method

      • Telephone contact using directory listing (American Annals)

        • Permission and willingness to participate in online or telephone survey about transition program offerings

        • Asked for referral to knowledgeable person about DHH programs, if not as listed

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Methodology2
Methodology Students?

  • Survey Respondent Data

    • Contact information entered into spreadsheet by state, program type, contact info, and RA

  • Confidentiality:

    • Responses coded on separate form from contact form

    • Demographic information on response form is voluntary

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Survey instrument
Survey Instrument Students?

  • Literature Review

    • 20 articles using transition survey instruments

    • Compiled across five categories

      • Employment Preparation

      • Postsecondary Preparation

      • Independent Living

      • Community Participation

      • Assessment

        • How information is collected regarding the students’ transition areas

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Pilot survey instrument
Pilot Survey Instrument Students?

  • Program offerings for DHH students in:

    • Academic programs

    • Vocational programs

    • Multiple disability programs

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Pilot survey instrument1

Academic Focus Students?

Vocational Focus

Multiple Disabilities

Employment Prep

Career Development

-awareness of jobs & work expectations

-exploration of job interests & skills

-mentorships, apprenticeships, & internships

-service learning projects

Community-Based Work

-job shadowing on campus

-job shadowing off campus

>in preferred career area (Yes/No)

-work experience on campus

-work experience in the community

>in preferred career area (Yes/No)

-job placement: paid work in the community

>in preferred career area (Yes/No)

Pilot Survey Instrument

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Pilot survey results
Pilot Survey Results Students?

  • Respondents were rarely knowledgeable about all program offerings

  • Survey was overly-lengthy

    • Quality of responses was reduced

    • Poor interview response rate

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Final survey instrument
Final Survey Instrument Students?

  • Online Survey

    • Silhouette (Flashlight Online)

    • Much shorter: key program components only

    • Radio-button responses with comments

  • Survey Instrument

    • Online Survey

    • Automatic download to Excel

      • Random number assignment of questions, by category

      • “Analyze” function of Silhouette

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Results
Results Students?

  • Under-response issues

    • Multiple contacts across full directory listing

  • Overrepresentation in certain categories

    • Multiple initial contacts sent to correct for nonresponders in all three school categories

    • Still addressing lack of response with few cases of multiple respondents by state

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Survey responses
Survey Responses Students?

  • 94 total

    • 92 indicated school type

    • 2 suggest small programs

      • Reported by Speech/Language Pathologist

      • Reported 1 DHH student in program

    • Results added to small programs

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Employment preparation
Employment Preparation Students?

Career Awareness

Career Development

Work Experience

Career Advancement

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Employment preparation1
Employment Preparation Students?

Job Applications

Disability Disclosure

Job Interview Skills

Job Interpersonal and Social Skills

Job and Career Change Skills

Job Shadowing

Work Experience

Work in Preferred Career Area

Paid Work

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Comments employment preparation
Comments: Students? Employment Preparation

  • Residential: Comments

    • School to Work Program for students not in a college track

    • Comprehensive offerings

  • Large: Comments

    • We offer various elective courses

    • DHH students only have access if they are low functioning

  • Small: Comments

    • Offer choices depending upon ability levels

    • Students participate in weekly vocational or transition classes

    • Transition aide works with students

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Postsecondary preparation
Postsecondary Preparation Students?

Email

Web Searches

Web Ethics/Netiquette

Microsoft Word

Excel

PowerPoint

Other: CAD, Photoshop & Publisher

desktop pub, WebCT, web dev & graphics

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Postsecondary preparation1
Postsecondary Preparation Students?

AP Courses

Site Visits

Orientation

Entrance Requirements

Application Processes

Financial Aid

Housing Arrangements

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Independent living
Independent Living Students?

Interpreters

Assistive Technology

Other: VRS & Sidekicks

Time Management

Legal Rights

IEP Meetings

Goal Setting

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Independent living1
Independent Living Students?

Voc Rehab, SSI/SSDI, other

supports and services

Housing: rent, food, clothing

Marriage/Family: dating, sexuality,

child care

Transportation: driver’s license,

public transportation, taxis

Healthcare: hygiene, medical, dental

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Independent living2
Independent Living Students?

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Comments independent living
Comments: Students? Independent Living

  • Residential: Comments

    • Follow state curriculum: ILS for low functioning students

    • No formal ILS: occurs through dorm staff

    • Wide range of classes and support services

  • Large: Comments

    • Students are referred to VR services

    • All seniors take a budgeting and IL class (fraud, insurance)

  • Small: Comments

    • We need to focus more on DHH rights outside of mainstream classes

    • Functional academics only if low functioning

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Community participation
Community Participation Students?

Recreation and Leisure

Socialization and Friendship Skills

Community Involvement and Participation

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Comments community participation
Comments: Students? Community Participation

  • Residential: Comments

    • Students are involved in community projects

    • Part of their IEP program

    • Strong preparation, college representatives on campus

  • Large: Comments

    • Some programs sponsor clubs or activities; we don’t focus on this

    • Only for low functioning students

    • Jr NAD, Deaf Academic Bowl

  • Small: Comments

    • Some discussion but no direct activities

    • DHH teacher provides

    • Parents’ responsibility

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Transition assessments
Transition Assessments Students?

Interest Inventories Aptitude Assessment

Ability Assessment Vocational Assessment

Transition Assessment Work Samples

Work Adjustment and Motivation

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Comments transition assessments
Comments: Students? Transition Assessments

  • Residential: Comments

    • One psychologist focuses on this

    • Annual case conferences and range of instruments

    • Part of their IEP

  • Large: Comments

    • Very strong assessment component

    • Annual committee decision

  • Small: Comments

    • State systems; VR systems

    • Varies by district; computer-generated program

    • Only test when necessary: audiogram is more important for eligibility

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Summary of results
Summary of Results Students?

  • Employment Preparation

    • Most provide:

      • Career awareness and exploration

      • Work experience and information about job applications.

    • Fewer provide:

      • Career advancement: 50/25/15%

      • Community work in a preferred field: 86/25/35%

      • Disability disclosure: 64/57/58%

      • Job and career change: 43/14/25%

  • Postsecondary Preparation

    • Most provide basic computer training, postsecondary and entrance information

      • Fewer address internet ethics: 79/57/63%

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Summary of results1
Summary of Results Students?

  • Independent & Community Living

    • Most programs provide:

      • Rights, IEP information, and accommodations Daily Living Skills and adult services

      • Functional academics

      • Community participation skills

  • Transition Assessments

    • Most gave interest inventories: 100/89/85%

    • Some collected work samples: 71/36/52%

    • Few assessed work adjustment: 50/25/23%

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Conclusions and conundrums
Conclusions and Conundrums Students?

  • Disability Disclosure and Accommodations

    • Disability disclosure: 64/57/58%

    • Interpreters: 93/96/92%

    • Assistive Technology: 86/86/90%

  • Global job market issues

    • Career advancement: 50/25/15%

    • Job and career change: 43/14/25%

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Conclusions and conundrums1
Conclusions and Conundrums Students?

  • Postsecondary Preparation

    • Site visits: 86/71/69%

    • Orientation: 71/75/58%

    • Evaluating disability services & supports

    • Beyond requirements and applications:

      • Financial Aid: 86/79/79%

      • Housing Arrangements: 57/39/44%

Transition Services Preparation & Training


What is the impact of educational placement change
What is the impact of educational placement change? Students?

  • Comments were more revealing of limitations:

    • General education curriculum and diploma requirements

    • Rural location

  • General program availability

    • Availability to all through generic school services

    • Some programs were available, but not necessarily offered to all DHH students

  • Residential Programs

    • Generally offered programs that were specific to DHH

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Limitations and further work
Limitations and Further Work Students?

  • Follow-up Analyses

    • Identify state data and proportional representation

  • Interviews

    • How much do thorough programs provide in each area?

      • How far beyond superficial coverage?

      • How broadly inclusive of bright vs. challenged students?

    • What are the challenges of limited programs?

      • NCLBA and general education requirements?

      • Funding and resources?

  • Follow-up comparisons

    • State and regional differences by school type

Transition Services Preparation & Training


Survey updates
Survey Updates Students?

  • Posted at http://www.educ.kent.edu/fundedprojects/TSPT/grant.htm

  • Questions and Comments?

  • Contact Information:

    • Dr. Pamela Luft

    • [email protected]

    • 330-672-0593

Transition Services Preparation & Training


References
References Students?

  • Allen, T. E., Rawlings, B. W., & Schildroth, A. N. (1989). Deaf students and the school-to-work transition. Baltimore, Paul H. Brookes.

  • American Annals of the Deaf (2007). University and college programs for personnel in deafness. American Annals of the Deaf, 152, 203-223.

  • Bowe, F. G. (2003). Transition for deaf and hard-of-hearing students: A blueprint for change. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8, 485-493.

  • Bullis, M., Bull, B., Johnson, B., & Peters, D. (1995). The school-to-community transition experiences of hearing young adults and young adults who are deaf. The Journal of Special Education, 28, 405-423.

  • Capella, M. E. (2003a). Comparing employment outcomes of vocational rehabiltiation consumers with hearing loss to other consumers and the general labor force. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 47, 24-33.

  • Capella, M. E. (2003b). Evaluating diffeences in demographics, services, and outcomes for vocational rehabilitation consumers with hearing loss versus consumers with other disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 69, 39-46.

  • Danek, M. M., & Busby, H. (1999). Transition planning and programming: Empowerment through partnership. Washington, DC: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University. Available at http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/products/index.html

  • Luckner, J. L. (2002). Facilitating the transition of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • NLTS2 accessed from http://www.nlts2.org/

  • Silhouette (Flashlight Online https://my.wsu.edu/portal/page?_pageid=177,74111&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL)

  • U.S. Department of Education. (2004)Twenty-sixth annual report to Congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Washington, DC: author. Retrieved 9/7/07 from http://www.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/2004/index.html

  • VValdes, K. A., Williamson, C. L., & Wagner, M. M. (1990). The national longitudinal transition study of special education students. Statistical almanac, volume 7: Youth categorized as hearing impaired. Washington, DC: SRI International, prepared for the Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education.

Transition Services Preparation & Training


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