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Chapter 4. Cell Structure and Function. Table of Contents. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology Section 2 Introduction to Cells Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells. Section 1 The History of Cell Biology. Chapter 4. Objectives.

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Table of contents

Chapter 4

Cell Structure and Function

Table of Contents

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells


Objectives

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

Chapter 4

Objectives

  • Namethe scientists who first observed living and nonliving cells.

  • Summarizethe research that led to the development of the cell theory.

  • Statethe three principles of the cell theory.

  • Explainwhy the cell is considered to be the basic unit of life.


The discovery of cells

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

Chapter 4

The Discovery of Cells

  • All living things are made up of one or more cells.

  • A cell is the smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life.


The discovery of cells continued

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

Chapter 4

The Discovery of Cells, continued

  • Development of the microscope…

  • Hooke

    • Robert Hooke (1665) discovered cells in slices of cork.

    • “great many boxes” … named them CELLS (monks)

  • Leeuwenhoek (Lay-vun-hook)

    • Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe living cells in microorganisms.

    • 1673 saw microorganisms using a simple microscope


The cell theory

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

Chapter 4

The Cell Theory

  • Observations begun by Hooke/van Leeuwenhoek, with the help of other scientists, helped to create the cell theory.

    • Approximately 150 years in the making

  • The cell theory states that all living organisms:

    • are made of one or more cells

    • cells are the basic units of structure and function

    • cells come only from pre-existing cells.


Table of contents

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

Chapter 4

Cell Theory

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept


The cell theory continued

Section 1 The History of Cell Biology

Chapter 4

The Cell Theory, continued

  • Cellular Basis of Life

    • All living things

      • are made of organized parts

      • obtain energy from their surroundings

      • perform chemical reactions

      • change with time

      • respond to their environment

      • reproduce


Other scientists

Other Scientists…

  • Matthias Schleiden (botanist)

    • Concluded all plants are made of cells

  • Theodor Schwann (zoologist)

    • Concluded that all animals are made of cells

  • Rudolph Virchow (physician)

    • While studying how disease affects living things, reasoned that cells come only from other cells.


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Objectives

  • Explain the relationship between cell shape and cell function.

  • Identify the factor that limits cell size.

  • Describethe three basic parts of a cell.

  • Compareprokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

  • Analyzethe relationship among cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms.


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Cell Diversity

  • Cell Shape

    • A cell’s shape reflects its function.


Table of contents

  • Nerve Celltransmit messages

  • Skin Cellcovering

  • White Blood Cell part of the immune system


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Cell Diversity, Continued

  • Cell Size

    • Cell size is limited by a cell’s surface area–to-volume ratio.


Cell diversity not all cells are alike

Cell Diversity… not all cells are alike

SIZE

  • Cells are limited in size by the ratio of their outer surface area to their volume.

    • If a cell keeps the same shape as it grows, its volume will increase more rapidly than its surface area (SA)

      *Think of inflating a balloon…


Surface area to volume

Surface Area to Volume…

  • IMPORTANT BECAUSE…

    • nutrients, oxygen, other materials must enter through its surface

    • as a cell grows larger, its surface area (SA) becomes too small to allow these materials to enter the cell quickly enough to meet the cell’s needs


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Basic Parts of a Cell

  • The three basic parts of a cell are the plasma membrane (cell membrane), the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Basic Parts of a Cell, continued

  • Plasma Membrane

    • The cell’s outer boundary, called theplasma membrane(or the cell membrane), covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and the outside of a cell.

    • Selectively permeable

      • Allows for the movement of only certain things to move in / out of the cell

      • Selective = means “choosy”


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Basic Parts of a Cell, continued

  • Cytoplasm

    • The region of the cell that is within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid (cytosol), the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus, is called thecytoplasm.


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Basic Parts of a Cell, continued

  • Nucleus

    • The nucleus is a large, membrane-bound organelle that contains a cell’s DNA.


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Two Basic Types of Cells

  • Prokaryotes

    • Prokaryote cellslack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

    • Unicellular

    • found on Earth before eukaryotes!

  • Remember: Pro… NO!


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Two Basic Types of Cells, continued

  • Eukaryotes

    • Eukaryote cells have a true nucleus (membrane-bound) and membrane-bound organelles.

    • The difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is very important – separate kingdoms!


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Comparing Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Click below to watch the Visual Concept.

Visual Concept


Table of contents

Section 2 Introduction to Cells

Chapter 4

Cellular Organization – heirarchy…

  • In multicellular eukaryotes, cells organize into tissues, organs, organ systems, and finally organisms.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Objectives

  • Describethe structure and function of a cell’s plasma membrane.

  • Summarize the role of the nucleus.

  • Listthe major organelles found in the cytosol, and describe their roles.

  • Identifythe characteristics of mitochondria.

  • Describe the structure and function of the cytoskeleton.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Plasma Membrane

  • Membrane Lipids

    • Cell membranes consist of aphospholipid bilayer.


Structure of lipid bilayer

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Structure of Lipid Bilayer


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Plasma Membrane, continued

  • Membrane Proteins

    • Cell membranes often contain proteins embedded within the phospholipid bilayer.


Plasma membrane cont d

Plasma Membrane, cont’d…


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Plasma Membrane, continued

  • Fluid Mosaic Model

    • Thefluid mosaic modelstates that the phospholipid bilayer behaves like a fluid more than it behaves like a solid.

    • *Think about a sheet of marbles… how would a sheet of marbles move?

  • Where does the term mosaic come from?

    • Think of artwork…


Fluid mosaic model

Fluid Mosaic Model


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Nucleus

  • The nucleusdirects the cell’s activities and stores DNA.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Nucleus of a Cell


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Nucleus, continued

  • Nuclear Envelope

    • The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Nucleus, continued

  • Nucleolus

    • The nucleolus is the place where DNA is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomal RNA.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Mitochondria

  • Mitochondriaharvest energy from organic compounds and transfer it to ATP.

  • Mitochondria have both an inner and outer membrane.

    • The inner membrane forms the cristae.

  • They also have their own DNA.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Ribosomes

  • Ribosomesare either free or attached to the rough ER and play a role in protein synthesis.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • The rough ER prepares proteins for export or insertion into the cell membrane.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Endoplasmic Reticulum, continued

  • The smooth ER builds lipids and participates in detoxification of toxins.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Golgi Apparatus

  • TheGolgi apparatusprocesses and packages proteins.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Vesicles

  • Vesicles, including lysosomes (digestive enzymes) and peroxisomes (detoxification enzymes), are classified by their contents.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Vesicles, continued

  • Protein Synthesis

    • The rough ER, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles work together to transport proteins to their destinations inside and outside the cell.


Processing of proteins

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Processing of Proteins


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Cytoskeleton

  • The cytoskeleton is made of protein fibers that help cells move and maintain their shape.

  • The cytoskeleton includes microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Cytoskeleton, continued

  • Cilia and Flagella

    • Ciliaandflagellaare hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.


Table of contents

Section 3 Cell Organelles and Features

Chapter 4

Cytoskeleton, continued

  • Centrioles

    • Centriolesconsist of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each other and are involved in cell division.


Table of contents

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

Chapter 4

Objectives

  • Listthree structures that are present in plant cells but not in animal cells.

  • Comparethe plasma membrane,the primary cell wall, and the secondary cell wall.

  • Explainthe role of the central vacuole.

  • Describethe roles of plastids in the life of a plant.

  • Identifyfeatures that distinguish prokaryotes, eukaryotes, plant cells, and animal cells.


Table of contents

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

Chapter 4

Plant Cells

  • Plant cells have cell walls, central vacuoles, and plastids.


Table of contents

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

Cell Wall

Chapter 4

  • In plant cells, a rigidcell wallcovers the cell membrane and provides support and protection.

  • Cellulose is the main component – made by the plasma membrane by enzymes

  • Primary cell wall: growth occurs in one direction based on the orientation of the microtubules

  • Some plants will have a secondary cell wall – (p. 88)

    • Occurs when cell stops growing

    • Forms between the plasma membrane and the primary cell wall

    • Strong but can no longer expand

    • Desks and tabletops


Table of contents

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

Chapter 4

Central Vacuole

  • Largecentral vacuolesstore water, enzymes, and waste products and provide support for plant tissue.

  • Turgor Pressure – water pressure exerted against cell wall

  • Plasmolysis = Shrinkage or contraction of the cytoplasm away from the wall of a cell, caused by loss of water through osmosis (hypertonic soln.)

  • Cytolysis = destruction of the cell by taking in too much water (hypotonic solution)


Table of contents

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

Plastids

Chapter 4

  • Plastidsstore starch (amyloplasts) and pigments.

  • Chromoplasts

    • Contain colorful pigments-may aid in photosynthesis

    • Carrot root cells contain carotene

    • Flower petals contain red, purple, yellow, white pigments

  • The chloroplast converts light energy into chemical energy by photosynthesis.

  • Chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts came from a common precursor – proplastid


Table of contents

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

Chapter 4

Comparing Cells

  • Prokaryotes, animal cells, and plant cells can be distinguished from each other by their unique features.


Table of contents

Section 4 Unique Features of Plant Cells

Chapter 4

Comparing Plant and Animal Cells


Plant organs

Plant Organs

  • Four main plant organs allow the life processes to take place:

  • 1) FlowerThe flower contains the organs of plant sexual reproductionIt attracts insects needed to carry the pollen between plants to allow pollinationIt's really important for reproduction


Table of contents

  • 2) StemThe stem is the organ which holds the leaves upright in the air and facing the lightIt carries water and minerals to the leaves, and food around the plantThe stem is important for nutrition, excretion and growth


Table of contents

  • 3) LeavesThe leaves are the organs of photosynthesisThey make all the food that the plant needsLeaves contain chlorophyll, which uses light energy to change carbon dioxide and water into glucoseThey have tiny little pores, which allow essential carbon dioxide in and waste gases outLeaves are important for nutrition and excretion


Table of contents

  • 4) RootsThe root is the organ which provides anchorage for the plant so that it does not blow away or fall overWith its root hairs it provides a big surface area to help take in water and minerals from the soil - these are both essential for photosynthesisThe root is therefore important for nutrition

  • All parts will be sensitive to the surroundings. The flowers may move to close at night and the shoot will grow and move to find light. Every cell in the plant will respire and change glucose into energy.


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