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Standardizacija terminologije. V mednarodni trgovini. Vsebina. Dejavnost MO SPP Battle of forms. STANDARDIZACIJA TERMINOLOGIJE V MEDNARODNI TRGOVINI. E notna splošna pravila (UNCITRAL, MTZ(ICC)), T ipski pogodbeni obrazci, S plošni pogoji poslovanja. UNCITRAL. A friške države (9),

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standardizacija terminologije

Standardizacija terminologije

V mednarodni trgovini

  • Dejavnost MO
  • SPP
  • Battle of forms
standardizacija terminologije v mednarodni trgovini
  • Enotna splošna pravila


  • Tipski pogodbeni obrazci,
  • Splošni pogoji poslovanja.
  • Afriške države (9),
  • Azijske države (7),
  • Vzhodnoevropske države (5),
  • Latinsko-ameriške države (6),
  • Zahodnoevropske in druge zahodne države (9).
produkti uncitral
Konvencija ZN o mednarodni prodaji blaga (DK) 1980,

Konvencija ZN o prevozu blaga po morju (‘Hamburška pravila’) 1978,

Konvencija ZN o odgovornosti operaterjev transportnih terminalov v mednarodni trgovini (1991),

Konvencija o priznanju in izvršitvi tujih arbitražnih (1958).

Arbitražna pravila (1976),


publikacije icc
Publikacije ICC
  • Incoterms,
  • Enotna pravila in Običaji za poslovanjez dokumentarnimi akreditivi (EPO 500)
  • Arbitražna in konciliacijska pravila 1988
  • Modelna prodajna pogodba
standardni obrazci trgovskih zdru enj
Standardni obrazci trgovskih združenj:
  • British Wool Conferedration (volna),
  • Federation of Oil, Seed and Fats Associations (olja, zrna in maščobe),
  • Grain and Feed Trade Association (žitarice in hrana),
  • International Wool Textile Organisation (volnene tkanine),
  • London Rubber Trade Association (guma),
  • Refined Sugar Association (sladkor) in
  • Timber Trade Federation of the United Kingdom (les).
un ece
  • Obrazec 18A za dobavo tovarn in strojev za izvoz,
  • Obrazec 574 za dobavo tovarn in strojev za izvoz,
  • Obrazec 188A za dobavo in postavitev tovarn in strojev za uvoz in izvoz,
  • Obrazec 188B, ki navaja dodatne klavzule glede nadzora nad postavitvijo tovarn in strojev v tujini,
  • Obrazec 188D, ki navaja dodatne klavzule glede nadzora nad postavitvijo tovarn in strojev v tujini in
  • Obrazec 730 za izvoz trajnih potrošniških dobrin.
pogodbeni obrazci
Pogodbeni obrazci
  • Mednarodna prodajna pogodba – ICC
  • Klavzula o višji sili – ICC
  • Hardship klavzula-ICC
klavzula icc o vi ji sili struktura
Klavzula ICC o višji sili - struktura
  • Generalna klavzula (1)
  • Ovira na strani podizvajalca (2)
  • Seznam primerov višje sile (3)
  • Posledice višje sile (4-9)
klavzula o vi ji sili icc generalna klavzula
Klavzula o višji sili ICC – generalna klavzula
  • [1] “ …where a party to a contract fails to perform one or more of its contractual duties, the consequences set out in paragraphs 4 to 9 of this Clause will follow if and to the extent that that party proves:
  • [a] that its failure to perform was caused by an impediment beyond its reasonable control; and
  • [b] that it could not reasonably have been expected to have taken the occurrence of the impediment into account at the time of the conclusion of the contract; and
  • [c] that it could not reasonably have avoided or overcome the effects of the impediment.”
primeri vs
Primeri VS
  • war (whether declared or not), armed conflict or the serious threat of same (including but not limited to hostile attack, blockade; military embargo), hostilities, invasion, act of a foreign enemy, extensive military mobilisation;
  • civil war, riot rebellion and revolution, military or usurped power, insurrection, civil commotion or disorder, mob violence, act of civil disobedience;
  • act of terrorism, sabotage or piracy;
  • act of authority whether lawful or unlawful, compliance with any law or governmental order, rule, regulation or direction, curfew restriction, expropriation, compulsory acquisition, seizure of works, requisition, nationalisation;
primeri vs1
Primeri VS
  • act of God, plague, epidemic, natural disaster such as but not limited to violent storm, cyclone, typhoon, hurricane, tornado, blizzard, earthquake, volcanic activity, landslide, tidal wave, tsunami, flood, damage or destruction by lightning, drought;
  • explosion, fire, destruction of machines, equipment, factories and of any kind of installation, prolonged break-down of transport, telecommunication or electric current;
  • general labour disturbance such as but not limited to boycott, strike and lock-out, go-slow, occupation of factories and premises.
razmerje med generalno klavzulo in seznamom primerov
Razmerje med generalno klavzulo in seznamom primerov
  • Nastop primera ne pomeni avtomatično oprostitve odgovornost
  • Samo posebno porazdelitev dokaznega bremena
  • a in b se domneva (nasprotna stranka lahko dokazuje nasprotno)
  • c mora dokazati dolžnik
splo ni pogoji
Splošni pogoji
  • splošna klavzula (general clause)
  • lastninski pridržek (retention of title clause)
  • klavzula o dvigu cen (price escalation clause)
  • klavzula o višini obresti(interest clause)
  • klavzula o višji sili (force majeure clause),
  • klavzula o izbiri prava (choice of law clause),
  • klavzula o izbiri foruma ali arbitraže (jurisdiction or arbitration clause).
entire agreement clause
Entire agreement clause

This Agreement and the exhibits attached hereto contain the entire agreement of the parties with respect to the subject matter of this Agreement, and supersede all prior negotiations, agreements and understandings with respect thereto. This Agreement may only be amended by a written document duly executed by all parties.

statute of limitations clause
Statute of Limitations Clause
  • The parties agree that any action in relation to an alleged breach of this Agreement shall be commenced within one year of the date of the breach, without regard to the date the breach is discovered. Any action not brought within that one year time period shall be barred, without regard to any other limitations period set forth by law or statute.
retention of title rot romalpa clause
Retention of Title (ROT, Romalpa) Clause
  • Title to the Goods shall remain vested in the Seller and shall not pass to the Buyer until the purchase price for the Goods has been paid in full and received by {the Seller.
rot clause all monies
ROT Clause – “All Monies”
  • All goods delivered by the company will remain the company’s property until all debts owed to the company by the buyer, including any balances existing, are settled.
  • Legal and beneficial title to the goods shall remain with the company until such time as the company has received payment of the purchase price of any other goods or services previously or subsequently supplied by the company to the customer whereupon such title shall pass to the customer.
arbitration clause
Arbitration Clause
  • Any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to this Agreement or its breach, which the parties fail to resolve by agreement within 30 days of notice of such controversy or claim, shall be settled by binding arbitration in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA, in accordance with the commercial arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association, applying the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. If the laws of the country in which party X is domiciled do not permit arbitration in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, then such arbitration shall be conducted under the rules and auspices of the London Court of International Arbitration, in London, England, by a single arbitrator with experience in commercial arbitration selected by the President of the LCIA.
arbitration clause1
Arbitration Clause
  • The arbitrator shall have no authority to award punitive damages. The costs of the arbitration shall be borne equally by the parties and each party shall bear its own associated costs, except that if one party prevails in arbitration hereunder this prevailing party shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorney fees and costs incurred in connection with the arbitration.
jurisdiction clause
Jurisdiction Clause
  • This agreement shall be governed by and con-strued in accordance with the laws of the Com-monwealth of Massachusetts, USA [excluding, if otherwise applicable, The United Nations Con-vention for the International Sale of Goods]. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts shall be the venue for any action arising with respect to this Agreement or the relationship between the par-ties, and each party hereby expressly consents to the jurisdiction of the courts of Massachusetts and USA for this purpose.
choice of law clause
Choice of Law Clause
  • „For the purpose of performance of obligations under this contract, obligations being performed in State X shall be subject to the applicable laws of State X; all other obligations shall be subject to the applicable laws of State Y.“
force majeure clause
Force Majeure Clause
  • “Neither party shall be liable in damages or have the right to terminate this Agreement for any delay or default in performing hereunder if such delay or default is caused by conditions beyond its control including, but not limited to Acts of God, Government restrictions (including the denial or cancellation of any export or other necessary license), wars, insurrections and/or any other cause beyond the reasonable control of the party whose performance is affected.”
problemi v zvezi s spp
Problemi v zvezi s SPP
  • Nasprotna stranka se mora s splošnimi pogoji seznaniti ali da vsaj dobiti realno možnost, da bi se z njimi seznanila.
  • Po možnosti naj uporabnik splošnih pogojev tudi pridobi pisno izjavo nasprotne stranke, da se z njimi strinja.
  • Posebno previdnost zahtevajo klavzule o izbiri foruma (23/1 Uredbe 44/2001)
  • Nekateri pravni redi zahtevajo izrecen sprejem omejujočih klavzul (1341/2 C.c. it.).
  • V večini pravnih redov pogodbena referenca k splošnim pogojem.
battle of forms
Battle of forms
  • Last shot theory
  • First shot theory
  • Kombinacija
  • Črtanje nasprotujočih si pogojev
  • Pogodba ni sklenjena
battle of forms1
Battle of forms
  • B.R.S. v Crutchley, 1967 (last shot)
  • Butler Machine Tools Co. Ltd. v. Ex-Cell-O Corp. 1979

“…on the terms and conditions stated therein”

19 2 cisg
(2) However, a reply to an offer which purports to be an acceptance but contains additional or different terms which do not materially alter the terms of the offer constitutes an acceptance, unless the offeror, without undue delay, objects orally to the discrepancy or dispatches a notice to that effect. If he does not so object, the terms of the contract are the terms of the offer with the modifications contained in the acceptance.

Načeloma last shot

19 (2) CISG





Signed: the buyers

“we accept your order on the terms and conditions

stated therein”

Signed: The sellers

19 3 cisg
19 (3) CISG

(3) Additional or different terms relating, among other things, to the price, payment, quality and quantity of the goods, place and time of delivery, extent of one party\'s liability to other or the settlement of disputes are considered to alter the terms of the offer materially.

n izozemsko pravo l 6 225 3
Nizozemsko pravo čl. 6:225/3

Če ponudba in sprejem napotujeta na različne splošne pogoje, druga napotitev nima učinka, če ne vsebuje tudi izrecne odklonitve uporabe splošnih pogojev, na katere napotuje prva napotitev.

  • First shot
  • Buyer’s Terms and Conditions:

Any controversy or claim arising out or relating to this contract or the breach thereof, shall be settled by the ICC arbitration held in Vienna, Austria, in accordance with the rules of the ICC.

  • Seller’s Terms and Conditions:

Any controversy or claim arising out or relating to this contract or the breach thereof, shall resolved solely by recourse to the courts and not by arbitration.

  • mednarodno standardizirani trgovski izrazi (klavzule)
  • določajo medsebojne obveznosti prodajalca in kupca
  • Incoterms predstavljajo del prodajne pogodbe
ne urejajo
Ne urejajo
  • prehoda lastnine
  • načina, kako naj blago prispe do dogovorjenega mesta
tiri osnovne kategorije
Štiri osnovne kategorije
  • E: odprema blaga
    • Ex works/factory/warehouse/store (EXW)
  • F: prevoz ni plačan
  • C: prevoz plačan in
  • D: prispetje blaga.
  • FCA (free carrier),
  • FAS (free alongside ship)
  • FOB (free on board)
  • CFR (cost and freight),
  • CIF (cost, insurance and freight),
  • CPT (carriage paid to ...) in
  • CIP (carriage and insurance paid to ...)
  • DAF (delivered at frontier),
  • DES (delivered ex ship),
  • DEQ (delivered ex quay),
  • DDU (delivered duty unpaid)
  • DDP (delivered, duty paid)
kdaj se uporabljajo
Kdaj se uporabljajo?
  • Izrecni dogovor
  • Brez izrecnega dogovora:
    • uporaba predpisana v SPP
    • stranki sta jih redno uporabljali v preteklosti.
    • v dotični branži ali pri dotičnem tipu pogodb se zelo pogosto uporabljajo