Liar behavior verbal and nonverbal perspectives
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LIAR BEHAVIOR: VERBAL AND NONVERBAL PERSPECTIVES. HOW IS LYING BEHAVIOR STUDIED?. FAKED LYING COUNTERATTITUDINAL LIES COUNTERFACTUAL LIES “REAL” LYING CHEATING & STEALING FORMATS MOST LIES ARE NOT “MAJOR” & GENERALLY PEOPLE ARE NOT AFRAID OF BEING CAUGHT.

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How is lying behavior studied l.jpg
HOW IS LYING BEHAVIOR STUDIED?

  • FAKED LYING

    • COUNTERATTITUDINAL LIES

    • COUNTERFACTUAL LIES

  • “REAL” LYING

    • CHEATING & STEALING FORMATS

    • MOST LIES ARE NOT “MAJOR” & GENERALLY PEOPLE ARE NOT AFRAID OF BEING CAUGHT


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DIFFICULTIES IN IDENTIFYING LIAR BEHAVIOR

  • NO SINGLE BEHAVIOR HAS BEEN FOUND TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH LYING AND NOTHING ELSE

  • DIFFERENT TYPES OF LIES (PREPARED OR NOT; LONG OR SHORT; ETC.) AND DIFFERENT MOTIVES (PROTECTING SELF; AVOIDING CONFLICT; WHITE LIES; ETC.) ARE LIKELY TO SHOW DIFFERENT BEHAVIORS


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NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR

  • INITIALLY, NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR THOUGHT TO BE THE KEY TO IDENTIFYING LIAR BEHAVIOR BECAUSE IT WAS THOUGHT TO BE OUT OF OUR AWARENESS AND CONTROL


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  • NOW WE KNOW:

    • FACIAL MOVEMENT IS SUBJECT TO CONSIDERABLE CONTROL, BUT MICRO EXPRESSIONS, FALSE SMILES, AND POOR TIMING MAY BE CLUES TO DECEIT

    • FEET/HANDS/BODY ARE LESS UNDER CONSCIOUS CONTROL AND MAY SHOW MORE “LEAKAGE”

    • LIARS MAY BE THE LEAST CONSCIOUS OF VOCAL SIGNALS

    • ATTEMPTED CONTROL MAY RESULT IN OVERCOMPENSATION--E.G., EYE GAZE


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MOTIVATIONAL IMPAIRMENT PROCESS

  • THIS IS A THEORY (SUPPORTED BY SOME RESEARCH) WHICH ARGUES THAT THE MORE IMPORTANT THE LIE TO THE LIAR, THE GREATER THE CHANCES THAT IT CAN BE DETECTED FROM NONVERBAL CUES AND THE LESS LIKELY IT CAN BE DETECTED FROM VERBAL CUES



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NONVERBAL (COMPARED TO TRUTHTELLERS)

  • LESS SMILING

  • FAKE SMILING (NO USE OF LOWER EYELIDS)

  • MORE SPEECH ERRORS

  • MORE HESITATIONS DURING SPEECH

  • LONGER LATENCY OF RESPONSE

  • HIGHER PITCH


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OTHER NONVERBAL BEHAVIORS WHICH COMMONLY OCCUR (COMPARED TO TRUTHTELLERS)

  • PUPIL DILATION

  • RAPID BLINKING

  • NERVOUS MANNERISMS

  • SHRUGS

  • IDIOSYNCRATIC SIGNALS--E.G., SWALLOWING/GULPING; RED NECK; ETC.


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VERBAL BEHAVIOR (COMPARED TO TRUTHTELLERS)

  • LESS CONTENT--SHORTER RESPONSE LENGTH

  • ALLNESS TERMS--E.G., ALL, EVERY, NONE, NOBODY, ALWAYS

  • FEWER VERIFIABLE REFERENTS MENTIONED--NONSPECIFIC INFORMATION; VAGUE; ABSTRACT

  • SLIPS OF THE TONGUE


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LIES EMBEDDED IN CONVERSATIONAL ACTS (COMPARED TO TRUTHTELLERS)

  • LIES WHICH FULFILL THE NEED FOR ACCEPTANCE/AGREEMENT

  • LIES WHICH DENY SELF-DEPRECATIONS

  • LIES USED TO DEFUSE ANTICIPATED REJECTIONS


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EQUIVOCATION (COMPARED TO TRUTHTELLERS)


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GENERAL FACTORS USED IN JUDGING THE POSSIBILITY OF DECEPTIVE VERBAL BEHAVIOR

  • PLAUSIBILITY

  • CONCRETENESS

  • CLARITY

  • CONSISTENCY


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COGNITIVE EMOTIONAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH LIES VERBAL BEHAVIOR

  • LIMITED TO LIES IN WHICH THE LIAR KNOWS HE/SHE IS LYING AND PERCEIVES IMPORTANT CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACT AND IS NOT A PATHOLOGICAL LIAR


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  • THE TWO MOST STUDIED VERBAL BEHAVIOR

    • AROUSAL

    • COGNITIVE DIFFICULTY

  • TWO OTHER PROCESSES WHICH LIARS MAY EXPERIENCE

    • ATTEMPTED CONTROL

    • AFFECTIVE STATES

      • ANXIETY

      • ANGER

      • HAPPINESS (DURING DUPING DELIGHT)

      • GUILT


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