Chapter 13
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Chapter 13







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Chapter 13 . Subcultures and Consumer Behavior. Subculture. A distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society. Figure 13.1 Relationship Between Culture and Subculture. Subcultural Traits of Hispanic Americans. Dominant Cultural
Chapter 13

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Slide 1

Chapter 13

Subcultures and Consumer Behavior

Slide 2

Subculture

A distinct cultural group that exists as an identifiable segment within a larger, more complex society.

Slide 3

Figure 13.1 Relationship Between Culture and Subculture

Subcultural

Traits

of Hispanic

Americans

Dominant

Cultural

Traits of

U.S. Citizens

Subcultural

Traits

of Asian

Americans

Slide 4

Table 13.1 Examples of Major Subcultural Categories

CATEGORIES

EXAMPLES

Nationality

French, Puerto Rican, Korean

Religion

Catholic, Hindu, Jew

Geographic region

Southeastern, Midwestern, Eastern

Race

African-American, Caucasian, Asian-American

Age

Teens, Xers, middle age, elderly

Gender

Female, Male

Occupation

Engineer, cook, plumber

Social class

Lower, middle, upper

Slide 5

Issues in Studying Hispanic Subcultures

  • Hispanic Consumer Behavior

    • Stronger preference for well-established brands

    • Prefer to shop at smaller stores

    • Some are shifting food shopping to non-ethnic American-style supermarkets

    • Youths are more fashion-conscious

  • Defining and Segmenting the Hispanic Market

    • Six ways of defining and segmenting the market

Slide 6

Table 13.2 Traditional Characteristics of the Hispanic American Market

Prefer well-known or familiar brands

Buy brands perceived to be more prestigious

Are fashion-conscious

Historically prefer to shop at smaller personal stores

Buy brands advertised by their ethnic-group stores

Tend not to be impulse buyers (i.e., are deliberate)

Increasingly clipping and using cents-off coupons

Likely to buy what their parents bought

Prefer fresh to frozen or prepared items

Tend to be negative about marketing practices and government intervention in business

Slide 7

Table 13.3 Ways in Which “Hispanic” Has Been Defined

NAME OF INDICATOR

NATURE/SCOPE AND COMMENTARY

Spanish surname

Not a definitive; since a non-Hispanic person might have a Spanish surname, or an Hispanic person might have a non-Spanish surname.

Country of origin

The birthplace of persons born in the Untied States of Hispanic parents would not reveal their Hispanic background.

Country of family ancestry

Includes those individuals who may not be Hispanic despite coming form a particular Spanish-Latin country.

Spanish spoken at home

A significant minority of Hispanic households may speak English at home, yet consider themselves to be cultural Hispanic.

Self-identification

It is reasonable that if an adequate number of self-report choices are offered, a person might identify himself or herself as “Hispanic.”

Degree of identification

This measure captures the “degree” of personal identification as “Hispanic” and augments the self-identification measure.

Slide 8

Table 13.4 A Comparison of Jewish and General Population with Respect to Travel-Related Behavior

BEHAVIOR

JEWISH MEDIA READER

TOTAL U.S. AVERAGE

Taken a trip outside the U.S. within the past 3 years

60.3%

18.4%

Taken 10 or more trips outside the U.S. within the last 3 years

6.9%

1.2%

Taken a cruise within the past 3 years

31.4%

6.4%

Belong to a frequent flier program

67.5%

9.1%

Personally rented a car within the past 12 months

48.1%

11.4%

Slide 9

Table 13.5 Product Purchase/Usage by Leading Metropolitan Market

PRODUCT PURCHASE/USAGE

HIGHEST PURCHASE/

USAGE

LOWEST PURCHASE/ USAGE

Own Rollerblades/in-line skates

Detroit

Dallas

New domestic car

Detroit

San Francisco

New imported car

Washington, D.C.

Detroit

Have life insurance

Cleveland

San Francisco

Drink Scotch whiskey

Dallas

Cleveland

Purchased men’s jeans

Cleveland

New York

Have a bowling ball

Detroit

Boston

Use eyeliner

Dallas

Philadelphia

Use artificial sweeteners

Dallas-Fort Worth

San Francisco

Used cough syrup (past 6 months)

Chicago

Washington, D.C.

Popcorn (past 6 months)

Detroit

New York

Lottery tickets (past 12 months)

Cleveland

Washington, D.C.

Slide 10

Major Racial Subcultures

  • The African-American Consumer

    • Largest racial minority in U.S.

    • Purchasing power estimated at $469 billion

  • Asian-American Consumers

    • Currently about 10 million in size

    • Estimated at 10.9 million in 2001

    • Gain of almost 50% since 1990

Slide 11

Table 13.6 Comparison of Purchase Patterns of White, African American, and Hispanic American Households

PRODUCT/ACTIVITY

ANGLO

WHITE

AFRICAN

AMERICAN

HISPANIC

AMERICAN

Purchased men’s jeans

105

69

104

Dress shoes

99

104

85

Women’s designer jeans

96

118

117

Regular women’s jeans

103

80

100

Have a bowling ball

109

40

58

Have a rifle

112

22

72

Noncola soft drink 2+ glasses in past 7 days

104

69

92

Diet-cola soft drink 2+ glasses in past 7 days

108

59

82

Cough syrup 2+ times in past 30 days

92

155

120

Baby powder 5+ times in past 7 days

97

129

146

Hair coloring past 6 months

98

116

126

Women’s eyeliner

100

95

117

Slide 12

Reaching the African-American Audience

  • Two Alternate Strategies

    • Running all the advertising in general mass media

    • Running additional advertising at special advertising in selected media directed exclusively to African-Americans

Slide 13

Asian-American Consumers

  • Where Are the Asian-Americans?

    • Largely urban

  • Asian-Americans As Consumers

    • Buying power of $110 billion annually

    • Brand loyal customers

    • Frequently male-oriented consumer decisions

    • Attracted to retailers who welcome Asian-American patronage

Slide 14

Age Subcultures

Age subgroupings of the population.

Slide 15

Major Age Subcultures

Generation X Market

Baby Boomer Market

Seniors

Market

Slide 16

Generation X

The 18- to 29-year-old post baby boomer segment (also referred to as Xers or busters).

Slide 17

Baby Boomers

Individuals born between 1946 and 1964 (approximately 45% of the adult population).

Slide 18

Seniors

Generally older consumers. Consist of subcultures including the 50-plus market and the “elderly consumers” market.

Slide 19

Table 13.7 A Comparison of Generation X and Baby Boomers: As Seen by Xers

CATEGORY

GENERATION X

BABY BOOMERS

Favorite TV Mom

Mrs. Brady

June Cleaver

Scariest Movie

Silence of the Lambs

The Blob

Lost Poet Musician

Kurt Cobain

Jim Morrison

Childhood Athlete

Michael Jordan

O.J. Simpson

Life Changing Movie

Heathers

Easy Rider

Haunting Assassination

John Lennon

John F. Kennedy

Most Annoying Fad

Body Piercing

Hula Hoops

Way Back When...

Vanilla Ice

Barry Manilow

Fashion Faux Pas

Parachute Pants

Bell Bottoms

Rallying Cry

AIDS, Crime

Vietnam

Kennedy?

MTV-VJ

Former President

Slide 20

Issues in Understanding Older Consumer

  • Defining “Older” in Older Consumer

  • Segmenting the Elderly Market

  • Shopping Experiences of the Older Consumer

Slide 21

Table 13.8 Length of Lifestyle for the U.S. Consumer

AGE COHORT

LENGTH OF LIFESTYLE

Childhood (0-17)

17

Early adulthood (18-34)

16

Middle adulthood (35-49)

14

Later adulthood

29+

Slide 22

Table 13.9 Comparison of New-Age and Traditional Elderly

NEW-AGE ELDERLY

TRADITIONAL/STEREOTYPICAL ELDERLY

  • Perceive themselves to be different in outlook from other people their age

  • Perceive all older people to be about the same in outlook

  • Age is seen as a state of mind

  • See age as more of a physical state

  • See themselves as younger than their chronological age

  • See themselves at or near their chronological age

  • Feel younger, think younger, and “do” younger

  • Tend to feel, think, and do things that they feel match their chronological age

  • Have a genuinely youthful outlook

  • Feel that one should act one’s age

  • Feel there is a considerable adventure to living

Slide 23

Table 13.9 continued

NEW-AGE ELDERLY

TRADITIONAL/STEREOTYPICAL ELDERLY

  • Feel more in control of their own lives

  • Normal sense of being in control of their own lives

  • Have greater self-confidence when it comes to making consumer decisions

  • Normal range of self-confidence when it comes to making consumer decisions

  • Less concerned that they will make a mistake when buying something

  • Some concern that they will make a mistake when buying something

  • Especially knowledgeable and alert consumers

  • Low-to-average consumer capabilities

  • Selectively innovative

  • Not innovative

  • Seek new experiences and personal challenges

  • Seek stability and a secure routine

Slide 24

Table 13.9 continued

NEW-AGE ELDERLY

TRADITIONAL/STEREOTYPICAL ELDERLY

  • Less interested in accumulating possessions

  • Normal range of interest in accumulating possessions

  • Higher measured life satisfaction

  • Lower measured life satisfaction

  • Less likely to want to live their lives over differently

  • Have some regrets as to how they lived their lives

  • Perceive themselves to be healthier

  • Perceive themselves to be of normal health for their age

  • Feel financially more secure

  • Somewhat concerned about financial security

Slide 25

Issues in Understanding Sex as a Subculture

  • Sex Roles and Consumer Behavior

    • Masculine vs. Feminine Traits

  • The Working Woman

    • Segmentation Issues

    • Shopping Patterns

Slide 26

Table 13.10 How Women Control the Purse Strings

Women control or influence…

80% of all purchase decisions

80% of new vehicle purchases

46% of menswear purchases

82% of supermarket purchases

53% of investment decisions

70% of appliance choices

Women also…

handle 75% of family finances

constitute 40% of business travel

are 43% of the persons with assets over $500,000


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