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Tonga Institute of Higher Education. IT253: Computer Organization. Lecture 1: Introduction. General Information. IT 253: 4 Hours of lecture a week Course Web Page

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IT253: Computer Organization

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It253 computer organization

Tonga Institute of Higher Education

IT253: Computer Organization

Lecture 1:


General information

General Information

IT 253: 4 Hours of lecture a week

Course Web Page

All information will be posted on the course web page, including lecture notes, assignments, homework and grades. You should visit the webpage frequently and check for updates.

Webpage will have a message board where students can post questions and the teacher will answer them



  • Grading Policy

    • Midterm 25%

    • Final 25%

    • Lab/Computer Projects 25%

    • Quizzes 25%

    • Class Participation/Attendance 5%

      Late homework policy

      -each day late you will lose 10 percent

      - If the teacher puts the homework answers on the website you can no longer hand in homework

Homework assignments tests

Homework, Assignments, Tests

Assignments - , mostly programming, may be individual or in a group. It will require you to submit your assignment by the due date specified when the assignment was handed out. Assignments may take a significant amount of time to complete, and should be started early. There will be time to work on the assignment during the lab practical time, but will generally require more time than allotted.

Quizzes – Quizzes will be once a week

Tests – Only two per semester. You are allowed to bring in one piece of paper to the test, with anything written on it that you think will help you with the test.

Cheating policy

Cheating Policy

  • Cheating and academic dishonesty is not accepted or tolerated

    • Any student found cheating on a testing material will automatically receive a zero for that assignment

    • Students are encouraged to study together, but to submit separate work for homework

    • There is no collaboration for tests

    • Students are expected to work together when assigned to work together and all group members should contribute equally to an assignment

How to do well in this course

How to do well in this course

  • Come to class and stay awake!

  • Course material is not simple, but can be mastered

  • Take notes for important things

  • Visit course webpage often. Review lecture notes for class and from other universities

  • Ask questions on the Question-Answer forum or to the teacher

Course overview

Course Overview

  • Topics to be covered

    • Introduction to Computer Architecture

    • Data representation

    • Memory and Bit Operations/Logic

    • Instruction Set Architecture

    • Assembly Language (MIPS)

    • Computer Arithmetic

    • Processor

    • Memory (physical and virtual)

    • Buses and interrupts

    • I/O devices

    • Special Topics (if there is time): Pipelining, multiprocessor

Why learn computer organization

Why learn Computer Organization?

  • As students of information and computer technology, it is vital to know the “inner” workings of the computer hardware and software in order to better understand effective programming principles, computer troubleshooting, debugging, operating systems, etc.

Why learn computer organization1

Why learn Computer Organization?

  • Just like a farmer who wants to grow crops

    • The farmer must know more than just how to put seeds in the ground

    • The farmer needs to know when to plant, what to plant where and how. It is challenging to grow some crops like ufi, and the farmer most possess knowledge of much information about the ground, climate, environment, insecticides.

Why learn computer organization2

Why learn Computer Organization?

  • You want to be a computer programmer/information technologist

  • You have to learn programming as a start

  • You also have to understand the machine

    • Hardware: Processor, memory, disk, etc.

    • Software: Operating system, Programming Languages/Compilers

  • All types of computer workers should understand what is happening “beneath the hood” of the computer.

  • You want to make purchasing decisions as an “expert”

  • Learn the language behind computers

What we will learn

What we will learn

  • The basic operation of a computer

    • Primitive operations (instructions)

    • Arithmetic

    • Instruction Sequencing and Processing

    • Memory

    • Input/Output

  • Understand the relationship between HW/SW

    • Interface design

    • High level programming to control signals

  • Software performance relies on understanding

  • underlying hardware

Brief history of computers

Brief history of computers

  • 1822 Charles Babbage – “inventor” of computer

    • Made the difference engine and analytical engine

      • Would do mathematical equations based on a “stored program”

  • 1936: Alan Turing –

    • The Turing machine, computability, universal machine

  • 1946 – Eckert and Mauchly

    • ENIAC – first electronic computer (with vacuum tubes)

  • 1947 John von Neumann

    • First to describe modern day computer, with central processor, memory, output, input

The big picture

The Big Picture

Example computer setup

Example Computer Setup

System organization

System Organization

What is computer organization

What is Computer Organization

Forces affecting computer org

Forces affecting Computer Org.

Trends in computers

Trends in Computers

Microprocessor technology

Microprocessor Technology

Levels of computer representation

Levels of Computer Representation

Instruction set interface

Instruction set interface



  • Administrative matters

  • Why Computer Organization is important

  • Big picture of computers

    • Every computer has 5 key components

      • (control, datapath, input, output, memory)

  • Computer hardware trends

  • Computer representation

  • NEXT TIME: Data representation

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