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BELLWORK. Name the 3 types of plate boundaries and an example of each. Deforming the Earth’s Crust. Moving Continents. http://www.suu.edu/faculty/colberg/hazards/platetectonics/18_Pangaea.html. Tracking Tectonic Plates. Scientists use GPS to track plate movement.

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bellwork
BELLWORK
  • Name the 3 types of plate boundaries and an example of each.
moving continents
Moving Continents
  • http://www.suu.edu/faculty/colberg/hazards/platetectonics/18_Pangaea.html
tracking tectonic plates
Tracking Tectonic Plates

Scientists use GPS to track plate movement.

Radio waves are beamed from satellites to GPS ground stations which record their position.

3 possible driving forces
3 Possible Driving Forces
  • Convection Currents
  • Ridge Push and Slab Pull
    • Ridge Push– At mid-ocean ridges, the oceanic lithosphere is higher than it is where it sinks into the asthenosphere. Because of ridge push, the oceanic lithosphere slides downhill under the force of gravity.
    • Slab Pull – Because oceanic lithosphere is denser than the asthenosphere, the edge of the tectonic plate that contains oceanic lithosphere sinks and pulls the rest of the tectonic plate with it in a process called slab pull.
slide6
Plate movement causes geological events such as mountain formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
deformation
Deformation
  • The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress.
    • Stress is the amount of force per unit area on a given material.
  • Different things happen to rock when different types of stress are applied.
    • Rock layers bend when stress is placed on them.
    • When enough stress is placed on rocks, they can reach their elastic limit and break.
compression
Compression
  • The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide.
  • When compression occurs at a convergent boundary, large mountain ranges can form.
tension
Tension
  • Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
  • Tension occurs at divergent plate boundaries, such as mid-ocean ridges, when two tectonic plates pull away from each other.
folding
Folding
  • The bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust.
  • Types of Folds – depends on how the rock layers deform:
    • Anticlines
    • Synclines
    • Monoclines
anticline
Anticline
  • Upward-arching folds.
  • Caused by horizontal stress.
syncline
Syncline
  • Downward, troughlike folds.
  • Caused by horizontal stress.
monocline
Monocline
  • Fold where both ends are horizontal.
  • Cause by vertical stress.
faulting
Faulting
  • The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other.
    • Some rock layers break when stress is applied
    • The blocks of crust on each side of the fault are called fault blocks.
footwall hanging wall
Footwall & Hanging Wall
  • When a fault is not vertical, its two sides are either a hanging wall or a footwall.
normal fault
Normal Fault
  • When a normal fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall.
  • Caused by rocks being pulled apart (tension).
reverse fault
Reverse Fault
  • When a reverse fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to the footwall.
  • Caused when rocks are pushed together (compression).
strike slip fault
Strike-Slip Fault
  • When opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally.
mountain building
Mountain Building
  • When tectonic plates undergo compression or tension, they can form mountain ranges in several ways.
folded mountains
Folded Mountains
  • The highest mountains in the world are formed when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upwards to form folds.
    • This occurs at convergent

boundaries where plates collide.

    • The plates buckle and thicken.
    • The continental crust is pushed

upward, forming mountains.

slide24
Alps

In central

Europe

fault block mountains
Fault-Block Mountains
  • Form when large blocks of the Earth’s crust drop down relative to other blocks.
  • Tension produces mountains that have sharp, jagged peaks.
examples of fault block mountains
Examples of Fault-Block Mountains
  • Teton Range in Wyoming.
volcanic mountains
Volcanic Mountains
  • Form when magma rises to the Earth’s surface and erupts.
examples of volcanic mountains
Examples of Volcanic Mountains
  • Mount St. Helens in Washington
uplift and subsidence
Uplift and Subsidence
  • Uplift is the rising of regions of the Earth’s crust to higher elevations.
    • Rebound – When the crust slowing springs back to its previous elevation, as when a glacier melts.
  • Subsidence is the sinking of regions of the Earth’s crust to lower elevations.
    • Rocks that are hot take up more space than cooler rocks.
tectonic letdown
Tectonic Letdown
  • Subsidence can also occur when the lithosphere becomes stretched in rift zones.
slide36
Quiz
  • Name the 3 types of faults.
  • Name the 3 types of folds.
  • What is compression?
  • What is tension?
  • Would you find a folded mountain at a mid-ocean ridge? Why or why not?
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