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BELLWORK. Name the 3 types of plate boundaries and an example of each. Deforming the Earth’s Crust. Moving Continents. http://www.suu.edu/faculty/colberg/hazards/platetectonics/18_Pangaea.html. Tracking Tectonic Plates. Scientists use GPS to track plate movement.

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Bellwork
BELLWORK

  • Name the 3 types of plate boundaries and an example of each.


Deforming the earth s crust

Deforming the Earth’s Crust


Moving continents
Moving Continents

  • http://www.suu.edu/faculty/colberg/hazards/platetectonics/18_Pangaea.html


Tracking tectonic plates
Tracking Tectonic Plates

Scientists use GPS to track plate movement.

Radio waves are beamed from satellites to GPS ground stations which record their position.


3 possible driving forces
3 Possible Driving Forces

  • Convection Currents

  • Ridge Push and Slab Pull

    • Ridge Push– At mid-ocean ridges, the oceanic lithosphere is higher than it is where it sinks into the asthenosphere. Because of ridge push, the oceanic lithosphere slides downhill under the force of gravity.

    • Slab Pull – Because oceanic lithosphere is denser than the asthenosphere, the edge of the tectonic plate that contains oceanic lithosphere sinks and pulls the rest of the tectonic plate with it in a process called slab pull.



Deformation
Deformation formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • The process by which the shape of a rock changes because of stress.

    • Stress is the amount of force per unit area on a given material.

  • Different things happen to rock when different types of stress are applied.

    • Rock layers bend when stress is placed on them.

    • When enough stress is placed on rocks, they can reach their elastic limit and break.


Compression
Compression formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • The type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed, such as when two tectonic plates collide.

  • When compression occurs at a convergent boundary, large mountain ranges can form.


Tension
Tension formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object

  • Tension occurs at divergent plate boundaries, such as mid-ocean ridges, when two tectonic plates pull away from each other.


Folding
Folding formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • The bending of rock layers because of stress in the Earth’s crust.

  • Types of Folds – depends on how the rock layers deform:

    • Anticlines

    • Synclines

    • Monoclines


Anticline
Anticline formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Upward-arching folds.

  • Caused by horizontal stress.


Syncline
Syncline formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Downward, troughlike folds.

  • Caused by horizontal stress.


Monocline
Monocline formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Fold where both ends are horizontal.

  • Cause by vertical stress.


Faulting
Faulting formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other.

    • Some rock layers break when stress is applied

    • The blocks of crust on each side of the fault are called fault blocks.


Footwall hanging wall
Footwall & Hanging Wall formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • When a fault is not vertical, its two sides are either a hanging wall or a footwall.


Normal fault
Normal Fault formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • When a normal fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move down relative to the footwall.

  • Caused by rocks being pulled apart (tension).


Normal fault1
Normal Fault formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.


Reverse fault
Reverse Fault formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • When a reverse fault moves, it causes the hanging wall to move up relative to the footwall.

  • Caused when rocks are pushed together (compression).


Reverse fault1
Reverse Fault formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.


Strike slip fault
Strike-Slip Fault formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • When opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally.


Mountain building
Mountain Building formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • When tectonic plates undergo compression or tension, they can form mountain ranges in several ways.


Folded mountains
Folded Mountains formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • The highest mountains in the world are formed when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upwards to form folds.

    • This occurs at convergent

      boundaries where plates collide.

    • The plates buckle and thicken.

    • The continental crust is pushed

      upward, forming mountains.


Examples of folded mountains
Examples of Folded Mountains formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Himalayas


  • Alps formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

    In central

    Europe


  • Ural Mountains formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

    in Russia



Fault block mountains
Fault-Block Mountains formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Form when large blocks of the Earth’s crust drop down relative to other blocks.

  • Tension produces mountains that have sharp, jagged peaks.


Examples of fault block mountains
Examples of Fault-Block Mountains formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Teton Range in Wyoming.




Volcanic mountains
Volcanic Mountains formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Form when magma rises to the Earth’s surface and erupts.


Examples of volcanic mountains
Examples of Volcanic Mountains formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Mount St. Helens in Washington



Uplift and subsidence
Uplift and Subsidence formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Uplift is the rising of regions of the Earth’s crust to higher elevations.

    • Rebound – When the crust slowing springs back to its previous elevation, as when a glacier melts.

  • Subsidence is the sinking of regions of the Earth’s crust to lower elevations.

    • Rocks that are hot take up more space than cooler rocks.


Tectonic letdown
Tectonic Letdown formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Subsidence can also occur when the lithosphere becomes stretched in rift zones.


Quiz formation, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

  • Name the 3 types of faults.

  • Name the 3 types of folds.

  • What is compression?

  • What is tension?

  • Would you find a folded mountain at a mid-ocean ridge? Why or why not?


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