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Session Goals. • Examine the grade level standards for CCSS in English Language Arts and Literacy • Discuss implications for instruction • Examine instructional shifts required by CCSS • Learn more about the Smarter Balanced Assessment. A Closer Look at the

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Session goals

Session Goals

• Examine the grade level standards for CCSS in English

Language Arts and Literacy

• Discuss implications for instruction

• Examine instructional shifts required by CCSS

• Learn more about the Smarter Balanced

Assessment


Session goals

A Closer Look at the

English Language Arts Standards


Session goals

Standards Review

• Please locate your

CCSS grade level

standards.

• Grades 6-8

• Grades 9-10 / 11-12

STANDARDS FOR

English Language Arts

&

Literacy in History/Social Studies,

Science, and Technical Subjects


Session goals

Reading Standards for Literature & Informational Text

  • [Note to Content Area Teachers: layout}

  • Skim page to see general layout.

  • What do you notice about the subheadings?

    • Same as Anchor Standards

  • How many standards are there?

10

• Follow along as we do a page-walk. [Four strands.]


Session goals

Reading: Informational Text

  • Choose one grade level and examine standards 1-10.

  • Highlight to show your understanding:

    • Green: Good to go; I teach this skill now.

    • No color: Not so sure about this.

    • Pink: Oh my gosh! I didn’t see that coming.

When finished, skim the other grade levels

until your peers are finished.


Session goals

Stand and find a partner from another table.

  • Share:

    • how you marked the standards

    • what you noticed


Session goals

Writing

  • Choose one grade level and examine standards 1-10.

  • Highlight to show your understanding:

    • Green: Ready to go; I teach this skill now.

    • No color: Not so sure about this.

    • Pink: Oh my gosh! I didn’t see that coming.

When finished, skim the other grade levels

until your peers are finished.


Session goals

Table Group Discussion

  • Please share:

    • how you marked the standards

    • what you noticed


Session goals

Stop!

  • Discuss Implications for Instruction

  • Choose a recorder.

  • Discuss: How will these new standards impact my

  • instruction? What does this mean for my classroom?

  • Choose either ReadingorWriting.

  • Recorder takes notes.


Session goals

Trading Places Discussion

  • Recorders: Please stand.

  • Switch places with a recorder from another table.

  • Report out to your new group the key points of your

  • discussion.


Session goals

Writing Modes (Types)

Oregon Standards CCSS

Expository

Persuasive

(Personal) Narrative

(Fictional) Narrative /

Imaginative

Informative / Explanatory

Opinions / Arguments

Narrative (real)

Narrative (imagined)


Session goals

Speaking & Listening and Language

  • Please get in groups of four: middle or high school.

  • Two people will review the Speaking & Listening

  • standards – noting key concepts they want to share

  • with group

  • Two people will review the Language standards –

  • noting key concepts.

  • • Work on your own or with your partner: 10 min.

Report out to the other members of your group.


Turn and talk

Turn and Talk

  • How might you use the highlighting protocol or “key points” strategy with your staff to have them closely examine the standards?

    OR

  • What strategies do you use to have teachers closely examine the CCSS?

• Plus and question mark

• “Now” and “new”


Session goals

Instructional Shifts for the Common Core State Standards


Session goals1

Session Goals

• Examine instructional shifts required by CCSS

• Discuss implications for instruction

• Learn more about the Smarter Balanced

Assessment


Session goals

  • Three Instructional Shifts

    • Increase in Text Complexity

    • Increase in Reading Informational Text

    • Increase in Informational and

    • Argument Writing

Please locate your Instructional Shifts document.


Session goals

Warm –Up for First Instructional Shift

• Please read the passage “With Rigor for All”

• Do a Quick Write by jotting down your thoughts on this

passage.

• Be prepared to share with a partner.

Carol Jago, Director of California Reading & Literature Project at UCLA


Session goals

Stand and find a partner from another table.

  • Shareyour reflections on “With Rigor for All”


Session goals

What is “Text Complexity”?

Text Complexity is…

“the inherent difficulty of reading and comprehending a text combined with consideration of reader and task variables. In the Standards, a three-part assessment of text difficulty that pairs qualitative and quantitative measures with reader-task considerations.”

CCSS Appendix A


Session goals

  • Common Core State Standards

  • 9-10 CCSS Reading Standard for Literature #10

  • By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

    • • Independently: On their own

    • • Proficiently: Answercomprehension questions

    • accurately


Text complexity

Text Complexity

“The Common Core Standards hinge on students encountering appropriately complex texts at each grade level in order to develop the mature language skills and the conceptual knowledge they need for success in school and life” (p. 3).


Session goals

Shift: Increase in Text Complexity

In order to prepare students for the complexity of college and career-ready texts, each grade level requires growth in text complexity.

• College requires mostly independent reading of

complex texts.

• Workplace materials are grade 12 or higher

(manuals, contracts, etc.).

While the reading demands have increased over the last 60 years, K-12 textbooks have decreased text complexity.


Session goals

Why is Text Complexity Important?

Complex text holds the vocabulary-, language-,

knowledge-, and thinking-building potential of deep comprehension.

If students cannot read challenging texts with

understanding---if they have not developed the skill, concentration, and stamina to read such texts---they will read less in general.

Appendix A: Common Core


Session goals

Research by ACT* showed that performance on complex text is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are likely to be ready for college and those who are not.

This is found to be true regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, or family income levels.

*ACT: American College Testing (2010)

The Condition of College & Career Readiness


What constitutes complex t ext

What Constitutes Complex Text?

“Complex text is typified by a combination of longer sentences, a higher proportion of less-frequent words, and a greater number and variety of words with multiple meanings.”

PARCC* Model Content Frameworks

* Partnership for Assessment of

Readiness for College and Careers


Session goals

How is Text Complexity Measured?

  • Qualitative dimensions

  • Quantitative dimensions

  • Reader and task considerations

The information in this overview can be found in Appendix A of the CCSS and in your handout.


Session goals

Quantitative Dimensions & Lexile Levels

  • Lexiles are calculated through a formula that takes into consideration sentence length and the frequency of “unique words.”


Session goals

Quantitative Dimensions & Lexile Levels

0 Lexile Range 2000


Finding a lexile level

Finding a Lexile Level

• Imagine we want to see where a text falls on the

quantitative dimension “leg” of the text complexity

triangle, using the Lexile text measure.

• For illustrative purposes, let’s

choose Harper Lee’s 1960 novel

To Kill a Mockingbird.


Www lexile com findabook

www.lexile.com/findabook


Session goals

Valuable Tool on: Lexile.com

Quick Book Search

810L930L


Session goals

Does not match the reading demands

of college and career.


Lexile framework for reading study summary of text lexile measures

1600

1400

Lexile Framework® for Reading Study Summary of Text Lexile Measures

1200

Text Lexile Measure (L)

1000

800

600

High

School

Literature

College

Textbooks

Military

High

School

Textbooks

Personal

Use

Entry-Level

Occupations

SAT 1,

ACT,

AP*

College

Literature

* Source of National Test Data: MetaMetrics


Lexile r anges r ealigned to c css

Lexile Ranges Realigned to CCSS

MetaMetricshas realigned its Lexile ranges to match the Standards’ text complexity grade bands and has adjusted upward its trajectory of reading comprehension development through the grades.

This change indicates that all students should be reading at the college and career readiness level by no later than the end of high school.

“Staircase of Complexity”


Lexile r anges r ealigned to common core

Lexile Ranges Realigned to Common Core

Old Lexile Ranges

Realigned Lexile Ranges


Session goals

But man cannot stand on Lexiles alone… especially for works of fiction.

940L

=


Session goals

Four Qualitative Dimensions

  • Levels of Meaning (literary texts) or Purpose (info texts)

    • Single level of meaning  Multiple levels of meaning

    • Explicitly stated purpose  Implicit purpose

Qualitative dimensions are those aspects of text complexity only measureable by an attentive reader, i.e. a human.


Session goals

Four Qualitative Dimensions

  • 2. Structure

    • Simple  Complex

    • Explicit  Implicit

    • Conventional  Unconventional

    • Events in chronological order  Out of order


Session goals

Four Qualitative Dimensions

  • 3. Language Conventionality & Clarity

    • Literal  Figurative or Ironic

    • Clear  Ambiguous

    • Contemporary, familiar  Archaic

    • Conversational  Academic or domain specific


Session goals

2. StructureComplicated text-structures (chronological, problem-solution, cause-effect, etc.) will add to a text’s complexity level.

Holesby Louis Sachar

• QuantitativeMeasurement: 4.9 (FryReadabilityvalue) L660

• QualitativeMeasurement: Structure

Story continuously jumps back and forth between three

different time periods/settings, and charactergroups

Adjusted text-complexity value: 5.9 – 7.5

A teacherteam in Kansas madethisdetermination.


Session goals

Angela’s Ashes by Frank McCourt• Quantitative Measurement: 6.2 (Fry Readability value)L1110• Qualitative Measurement: Structure The 1st person narrator ages as the story progresses, so his understanding of the events in the early part of his life lacks maturity. In addition, the author makes certain stylistic writing choices, such as a very spare use of punctuation, which adds to the text’s complexity.Adjusted text-complexity value (plus mature content): 9.5+


3 complex language adds to the adjusted reading level of a text

3. Complex Language Adds to the Adjusted Reading Level of a Text

• Quantitative Measurement: 4.9 (Fry)

• Qualitative Measurement

Language Conventionality: Language

patterns of the Puritan societies in the 1600s,

along with mature content.

Adjusted text-complexity value: 10.0 +

  • • Quantitative Measurement: 5.0 (Fry) L690

  • • Qualitative Measurement

  • Language Conventionality: Language

  • patterns and dialects from Medieval England.

  • Adjusted text-complexity value: 7.0


Session goals

Reader and Task Considerations

  • Cognitive capabilities

  • - attention, memory, analytical skills

  • Motivation and engagement with task

  • - purpose, interest in the content, confidence as a reader

  • • Prior knowledge, and / or experience

  • - vocabulary, linguistic structures, comprehension strategies

  • Use Teacher’s

  • Professional

  • Judgment


Session goals

The Text Complexity Triangle

2

1

3


Session goals

The Classroom Connection

How will increased text complexity impact

classroom instruction?


Session goals

Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality,

and Range of Student Reading 6-12

~ Appendix B ~


Concerns regarding the text exemplar lists

Concerns Regarding the “Text Exemplar” Lists

• “The historical speech I’ve always taught to my 10th

graders is now on the 8th grade list!”

• “Do we have to teach EVERYTHING on that list?”

• “Who’s going to tell those 7th grade teachers to stop

teaching the novel I am supposed to be teaching now

in 6th grade?”

• “The story I’m supposed to be teaching my 9th

graders is in the 11thgrade textbook!”


Everybody breathe

Everybody breathe…


Session goals

  • • The samples in Appendix B primarily serve to show the

  • level of text complexity and quality that the standards

  • require.

  • • While they would be excellent choices for teachers to

  • use with students, they are not required to teach all of,

  • or only, those titles from the lists.

  • • No one is suggesting that you move novels to a lower

  • grade level.


Do teachers need to abandon all previously used texts

Do teachers need to abandon all previously used texts?

NO!

Teachers who have had success using particular texts that are easier than those listed for a given grade band should feel free to continue to use them so long as the general movement during a given school year is toward texts of higher levels of complexity.


Appendix b text exemplars

Appendix B: Text Exemplars

For English Language Arts teacher training:

• This would be a good time to look at the literature examples in Appendix B.

• This resource gives us a good idea of what reading

“looks like” in a Common Core classroom.


Activity idea for your training

Activity Idea for Your Training

  • Showcase what “increased text complexity” means

  • Distribute article with a high Lexile level

  • Share teacher directions

  • Provide time to read and discuss


Session goals

Directions

  • Read your article on your own

  • Channel your inner freshman

  • Make notes in the margins:

    Whereis it difficult? Whyis it difficult there?

• Discuss with table group:

Where did understanding break down?

• How can we help students read complex texts in our

different content areas?


Final thoughts on text complexity

Final Thoughts on Text Complexity

  • All students should have access to complex texts.

  • Students who are not reading at grade level should have access to complex texts with appropriate scaffolding and support.

  • Students who are reading at grade level may need scaffolding as they master higher levels within the text complexity band.


Reflection

Reflection

Shift: Increase Text Complexity

  • On the notebook paper provided or in your own notes,

    take a moment to respond in writing to this question:

    - What is a first step to align with this shift?

    Two minute “Quick Write”


Table talk

Table Talk

  • What elements of the Text Complexity shift will you share with staff members?

  • What resources will you need?


Session goals

  • Shift: Increase the Amount of Informational Text Reading

  • • Classrooms are places where students access the world

  • – science, social studies, the arts and literature – through

  • informational and literary text.

  • • Increasing the amount of informational text students

  • read K-12 will prepare them for college and career.

  • • Increased amounts of reading in CCSS are aligned with

  • the NAEPReading Framework.


Session goals

Emphasis on Informational Text

Note: Reading across the instructional day, not only

in the 6-12 ELA classroom.

Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade

in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework


Why m ore i nformational t ext

Why More Informational Text?

  • Provides an ideal context for building language, vocabulary, knowledge, and reasoning

  • Is challenging and complex and has deep comprehension-building potential

  • Is an opportunity for students to learn how to engage, interact, and have “conversations” with the text in ways that prepare them for the type of experiences they will encounter in college and careers


Informational text

Informational Text

  • Emphasis is on nonfiction text structure

    - Cause and effect

    • Compare/contrast

    • Enumeration and description

    • Chronological / sequential

      - Opinion and supporting arguments


Informational text1

Informational Text

  • Nonfiction and historical, scientific, and technical texts

  • Includes:

    • literary nonfiction

    • books about history, social studies, science, and the arts

    • technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, maps

    • digital sources on a range of topics


Literary nonfiction

Literary Nonfiction

  • A branch of writing that employs the literary techniques usually associated with fiction to report on actual persons, places, or events.

    - memoir- biography

    - personal essay- autobiography

    - travel writing- nature writing

    - speeches

    - opinion pieces


David coleman ccss ela author

David Coleman, CCSS ELA author

  • Literary Non-Fiction in the Classroom

    Opening New Worlds for Students

    (video clip)


Session goals

Overview of Appendix B: Info. Text

• Text exemplars are provided as examples to illustrate

the complexity, quality, and range of student reading

at various grade levels.

• The text exemplars are

followed by brief

performance tasks that further

clarify the meaning of the

Standards.

• The tasks provide insight into

future SBAC assessments.


Session goals

6-8 Table of Contents (Example)

Informational Texts: English Language Arts ...............................................................

Adams,  John.  “Letter  on  Thomas  Jefferson.” ...................................................................

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas...........................................

Steinbeck, John. Travels with Charley: In Search of America.................................................

Sample Performance Tasks for Informational Texts: English Language Arts...........

InformationalTexts: History/Social Studies...............................................................

United States. Preamble and First Amendment to the United States Constitution..............

Lord, Walter. A Night to Remember......................................................................................

Isaacson, Phillip. A Short Walk through the Pyramids and through the World of ..............

Murphy, Jim. The Great Fire...................................................................................................

Greenberg, Jan, and Sandra Jordan. Vincent Van Gogh: Portrait of an Artist. ......................

Sample Performance Task for Informational Texts: History/Social Studies & Science, Mathematics and Technical Subjects


Considerations

Considerations

  • How do these passages compare with what students read independently in my classroom?

    • The passages are more complex.

    • The passages are less complex.

    • The passages are equally complex.


Session goals

Independent Work

• Read 3-4 of the Informational Text Exemplars in

Appendix B AND the Sample Performance Tasks that

follow.

• Take notes on what you discover…. Ah hah’s?

Work on your own.


Group discussion

Group Discussion

• How does the rigor of the reading passages and

sample performance tasks compare with the reading

your students do and the assignments you give?

• What are the implications for instruction? What

does this mean for your classroom?

• Please choose a recorder

to take notes.


Session goals

Trading Places Discussion

  • Recorders: Please stand.

  • Switch places with a recorder from another table.

  • Report out to your new group the key points of your

  • discussion on informational text.


What informational text do students read in your classroom

What Informational Text Do Students Read in Your Classroom?


Partner discussion

Partner Discussion

• Share the informational text passage you brought

today.

• Describe other examples of informational text you

use withstudents.

Let’s hear from you!


Text complexity1

Text Complexity

  • At what level of complexity are the informational passages students read in your class? Do they align with the CCSS Text Complexity Bands?

  • Use the Lexile Analyzer to find out!

  • Please log on to: www.lexile.com


Using the lexile analyzer

Using the Lexile Analyzer

  • Locate the informational text passage on your desktop.

  • Note: Only 999 words for free (shrink passage)

  • Convert it to a Plain Text document and rename it.

  • Open the Lexile Analyzer.

  • Select your Plain Text document.

  • Review your results.


Common problems

Common Problems

  • The passage is over 999 words.

  • The document is not in Plain Text format.

  • There are odd characters or extra spaces the program cannot read. Errors are shown… correct and re-submit.


Using the lexile analyzer1

Using the Lexile Analyzer

• Demo with Texting Article

• Try it out!

• Work alone or with a partner.


Group discussion1

Group Discussion

  • What did you discover about the Lexile level of the reading passage you brought today?

    • On target with CCSS Text Complexity Bands?

    • Lower?

    • Higher


Reflection1

Reflection

Shift: Increase Reading of Informational Text

  • On the notebook paper provided or in your own notes,

    take a moment to respond in writing to this question:

    - What is a first step to align with this shift?

    Two minute “Quick Write”


Table talk1

Table Talk

  • What elements of the Increase in Informational Reading shift will you share with staff members?

  • What resources will you need?


Session goals

  • Shift: Increase Informative

  • & Argument Writing

  • • In order to prepare students for the demands of writing

  • in college and career, the CCSS has a strong and growing

  • across-the-curriculumemphasis on students writing

  • arguments and informative/ explanatory texts.

  • • Aligned with NAEP Writing Framework


Session goals

CCSS Writing

Distribution of Communicative Purposes by

Grade in the 2011 NAEP Writing Framework


Session goals

College and Career Readiness

  • • 2009 ACT national curriculum survey of postsecondary

  • instructors found that these two types of writing tied

  • as the most important for incoming college students:

    • write to convey information

    • write to argue or persuade readers

  • The Condition of College Readiness (ACT 2009)


Session goals

Informative and Argument Writing

(video clip)


Session goals

Persuasive -vs- Argument Writing

• Often, the objective of persuasive writing is to “win”

the reader over to one side of an issue by using

emotional appeals. (loaded language, bandwagon, etc.)

• CCSS grades 6-12 place an emphasis on students being

able to write sound arguments. (K-5 = opinions)

• An argument is a reasoned, logical

way of demonstrating that the

writer’s position, belief, or conclusion

is valid.


Session goals

  • • Argument writing consists of supporting reasonable

  • claims with relevant evidence.

  • • Examples:

    • - At least twenty-five percent of the federal budget

    • should be spent on limiting pollution.

    • - America's anti-pollution efforts should focus on

    • privately owned cars.

  • • Is this arguable? Could evidence be presented to

  • support or refute the claim?


Session goals

Overview of Appendix C

Annotated student samples illustrate the rigor required to meet CCSS writing standards in a given grade level.

Some of the samples were written in class or as homework; others were written for on-demand assessments; still others were the result of sustained research projects

• Please locate Appendix C.


Considerations1

Considerations

  • How do these student samples compare with the quality of student writing in your classroom?

    • The writing is more complex.

    • The writing is less complex.

    • The writing is equally complex.


Session goals

  • Independent Work

  • • Locate the student writing samples in Appendix C:

  • • Read the writing samples and the annotation

  • - choose informative/explanatory or argument

  • • Take notes on what you discover…. Ah hah’s?

Work on your own.


Session goals

Group Discussion

• Share what you discovered during independent

reading of student writing samples in Appendix C.

• How do these student samples compare with the

quality of student writing in your classroom?


Session goals

Implications

  • More writing…

  • Increasingly complex writing at every grade level…

  • In all subjects…

  • Increase in informative/explanatory and argument writing…


Reflection2

Reflection

Shift: Increase in Informational and

Argument Writing

  • On the notebook paper provided or in your own notes,

    take a moment to respond in writing to this question:

    - What is a first step to align with this shift?

    Two minute “Quick Write”


Table talk2

Table Talk

  • What elements of the Increase in Informational and Argument Writing shift will you share with staff members?

  • What resources will you need?


The sbac assessment system

The SBAC Assessment System

English Language Arts and Mathematics, Grades 3 – 8 and High School

Optional Interim assessment system —

no stakes

Summative assessment for accountability

Last 12 weeks of year*

DIGITAL CLEARINGHOUSE of formative tools, processes and exemplars; released items and tasks; model curriculum units; educator training; professional development tools and resources; an interactive reporting system; scorer training modules; and teacher collaboration tools.

INTERIM ASSESSMENT

INTERIM ASSESSMENT

  • PERFORMANCE

  • TASKS

    • Reading

    • Writing

    • Math

COMPUTER

ADAPTIVE ASSESSMENT

Computer Adaptive Assessment and Performance Tasks

Computer Adaptive Assessment and Performance Tasks

Scope, sequence, number, and timing of interim assessments locally determined

* Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions.


Assessment design

Assessment Design


Assessment design1

Assessment Design


Assessment design2

Assessment Design


Components of the summative assessment

Components of the Summative Assessment

+

COMPUTER

ADAPTIVE

ASSESSMENT

PERFORMANCE TASKS

  • A computer adaptive assessment

  • given during final 12 weeks of the

  • school year*

  • Multiple item types, scored by

  • computer

  • Students mayhave the opportunity

  • to take the summative assessment

  • twice

  • Measure the ability to integrate

  • knowledge and skills, as required

  • in CCSS

  • Maximum time requirements:

  • 3-8: 105 min. HS: 120 min.

  • Computer-delivered, during final

  • 12 weeks of the school year*

  • Results within 2 weeks

  • Scores from the performance assessment and the computer adaptive

  • assessment will be combined for annual accountability scores.

* Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions.


Assessment item types

Assessment Item Types

  • Selected Response (SR)

    • Variety of multiple choice and true/false

  • Technology Enhanced (TE)

    • Technology embedded into items

  • Constructed Response (CR)

    • Short answer using textual evidence

  • Performance Tasks (PT)

    • Use higher level thinking skills; integrate reading, writing and speaking


End of year assessment

End-of-Year Assessment

Last 12 weeks of year*

  • Composed of approximately 40 to 65 questions per content

  • area (ELA and math); selected response

  • Uses adaptive delivery for more efficient testing and

  • more accurate measurement of all students, across the

  • performance spectrum (important in measuring growth)

COMPUTER

ADAPTIVE

ASSESSMENT

  • Scores from items that can be scored immediately will be

  • reported, and then updated as scores from those requiring

  • human scoring or artificial intelligence are completed

* Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions.


Performance tasks

Performance Tasks

Last 12 weeks of year*

  • One reading and writing task per year.

  • Example:

  • ELA: Read texts on a given theme, synthesize the

  • perspectives presented, and write an

  • argumentative essay.

  • PERFORMANCE

  • TASKS

    • Reading

    • Writing

    • Math

* Time windows may be adjusted based on results from the research agenda and final implementation decisions.


Sample performance tasks and items

Sample Performance Tasks and Items


Independent work

Independent Work

As you read the Sample Items, keep a running list of the skills students would need to successfully accomplish the components of this task.


Group discussion2

Group Discussion

• What did you notice about this task: first impressions?

• What student skills are required for students to

successfully complete this task?

• What information about the

Smarter Balanced

Assessment is essential to

share with your teachers?


The promise of the standards

The Promise of the Standards

“These Standards are not intended to be new names for old ways of doing business. They are a call to take the next step.

It is time for states to work together to build on lessons learned from two decades of standards-based reforms.

It is time to recognize that standards are not just promises to our children, but promises we intend to keep.”

– CCSSO & NGA Center (2010)


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