Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack
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Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transitory Ischemic Attack. Time is still Brain Victoria Parada MD Clinical Director Neuroscience and Stroke Program Valley Baptist Medical Center Harlingen. Objectives.

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Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transitory Ischemic Attack

  • Time is still Brain

  • Victoria Parada MD

  • Clinical Director

  • Neuroscience and Stroke Program

  • Valley Baptist Medical Center Harlingen


Objectives

Objectives

  • Address opportunities for optimal care in the acute phase of ischemic stroke through:

  • A review of latest scientific guidelines from the American Stroke Association published in March 2013 for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (US Food and Drug Administration approved and evidence-based care, including IV thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator)

  • A review of the new recommendations and safety of ivTPA administration to patients where the treatment was previously contraindicated

  • A review of the role of Primary and Comprehensive Stroke Centers in the Community and the role of Regional Stroke Systems of Care


Stroke an equal opportunity disease

STROKE AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY DISEASE

  • IN THE USA ON AVERAGE SOMEONE SUFFERS A STROKE EVERY 45 SECONDS

  • 795,000 AMERICANS HAVE STROKES ANNUALLY, 200,000 -500,000 PRESENT WITH TIA

  • 185,000 PATIENTS SUFFER A RECURRENT STROKE

  • STROKE DECLINES FROM 3RD TO 4TH LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH IN THE USA

  • BY 2008 STROKE MORTALITY RATE WAS 75% LESS THAN 1931-1960 RATE

3


Stroke remains the leading cause of disability in the usa

STROKE REMAINS THE LEADING CAUSE OF DISABILITY IN THE USA

  • TRADE OFF MORTALITY REDUCTION THROUGH BETTER ACUTE STROKE CARE IS AN INCREASE IN SURVIVORS WITH POST-STROKE CONSEQUENCES

    • ESTIMATED $73.7 BILLION IN ECONOMIC COSTS (2010)

    • INCALCULABLE HUMAN AND SOCIAL COST TO PATIENTS AND FAMILIES

4


Tia and acute ischemic stroke

TIA AND ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

  • TIA is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by a focal disturbance of brain or retinal ischemia, which clinical symptoms typically lasting less than 60 minutes and without evidence of infarction

  • STROKE any neurological dysfunction caused by a focal disturbance of brain or retinal ischemia lasting longer than 60 minutes with radiological evidence of infarction


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

  • 87 % Ischemic

  • 10 % Hemorrhagic

  • 3 % SAH

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How do we translate these information into daily clinical practice

How do we translate these information into daily clinical practice?

  • The first goal of evaluation is to confirm that patient’s symptoms are due to ischemic stroke

  • Second the urgent evaluation helps determine advisability for acute treatment with thrombolytic agents

  • Third, diagnostic studies are carried out to screen for acute medical or neurological complications of stroke

  • Fourth, the evaluation provides historical data useful to establish the vascular distribution of the stroke and provide clues about its etiology

  • Fifth, these data are essential to make decisions about optimal secondary stroke prevention


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

EMS

ER STAFF

STROKE

CODE

TEAM

COMUNITY

REHAB

SERVICES

STROKE UNIT/ NICU


Stroke chain of survival

STROKE CHAIN OF SURVIVAL

  • Detectionearly recognition AIS and TIA symptoms

  • DispatchIMMEDIATE ACTIVATION 911 and priority EMS

  • DeliveryPrompt transport TO MOST APPROPRIATE STROKE HOSPITAL and prehospital notification

  • DoorImmediate ER triage to HIGH ACUITY AREA

  • Data ER evaluation, STROKE TEAM ACTIVATION, laboratory, and brain imaging

  • DecisionDiagnosis and determination of most appropriate therapy, DISCUSSION WITH PATIENT /FAMILY

  • Drug Administration of appropriate drugs or other interventions

  • Disposition TIMELY admission to STROKE UNIT OR NICU


Prehospital evaluation

PREHOSPITAL EVALUATION

  • Asses and manage ABC’s

  • Initiate cardiac monitoring

  • Provide supplemental Oxigen to mantain O2 saturation >94%

  • Establish IV access per local protocol

  • Determine blood glucose and treat accordingly

  • Determine time of symptom onset or last known normal, family contact

  • TRIAGE AND RAPIDLY TRANSPORT TO THE CLOSEST AVAILABLE CERTIFIED PRIMARY OR COMPREHENSIVE STROKE CENTER


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

Comprehensive

Acute Stroke Ready

Primary

Highly specialized treatments for ALL types of strokes

Research

Wide range of hospitals

ivTPA, Stroke Units

Standard Stroke Care

Telemedicine

Drip and Ship Protocol


Benefits

BENEFITS

  • PSC increased the use of IV tPA from 1.5 % to 10.2%

  • CSC increased the use of lytic agents and improved overall care and outcomes for ISCHEMIC STROKE, INTRACRANIAL BLEEDS AND SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE

  • In hospital deaths are reduced by almost 50 % in hospitals with vascular neurologists and multidisciplinary neuroscience critical team

  • In hospital deaths are reduced by 24 % in hospitals with a stroke team, stroke units and neuro critical care units.


Emergency evaluation and diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke

EMERGENCY EVALUATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE

PROCESS OF CARE FROM SYMPTOM ONSET

GOAL 60 MINUTES FROM DOOR TO NEEDLE

  • Timely evaluation and diagnosis are paramount

  • ER most have an efficient pathway to identify and evaluate potential stroke patients

  • Patients with suspected acute stroke should be triaged with same priority than serious trauma or MI, regardless of severity of deficits

ED ARRIVAL MD EVAL STROKE TEAM CT CT READ tPA bolus Door to STROKE UNIT OR NICU ADM

0 min <10 min <15 min <25 min < 45 min <60 minuts < 3 HOURS


Acute stroke therapy

Acute stroke therapy

  • Accurate time of symptom onset

  • Focused bedside assessment

  • Rapid interpretation of ancillary tests


Neurologic examination

Neurologic Examination

  • The examination should focus on identifying signs of lateralized hemispheric or brainstem dysfunction consistent with focal cerebral ischemia (NIHSS)


Ancillary testing

Ancillary Testing

  • blood glucose

  • electrolytes

  • complete blood count

  • prothrombin time

  • activated partial thromboplastin time,

  • international normalized ratio

  • renal function

  • cardiac enzymes and a 12-lead EKG


Ct of brain w o contrast

CT of brain w/o contrast

  • Early signs of ischemic stroke:

  • Hyper-dense vessel sign

  • Loss of insular ribbon

  • Obscuration of lenticular nucleus

  • Loss of gray-white matter distinction

  • Sulcal effacement

  • Areas of hypo-attenuation


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

  • Non invasive vascular study is strongly recommended during initial evaluation if mechanical thrombectomy is contemplated

  • CT perfusion for measurements of infarct core and penumbra is recommended for selection of acute reperfusion therapy beyond 3 hours


Recommendations for patients with symptoms of ais that have resolved

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMS OF AIS THAT HAVE RESOLVED

  • Non invasive imaging of cervical vessels

  • CTA or MRA of intracranial vasculature to exclude the presence of proximal intracranial stenosis or oclussio. Confirmation with catheter angiography is recommended.

  • PATIENTS WITH TIA SHOULD UNDERGO NEUROIMAGING EVALUATION WITHIN 24 HOURS FROM SYMPTOMS ONSET


Intravenous rtpa

Intravenous rTPA

  • IV thrombolytic therapy remains the cornerstone of evidence-based acute ischemic stroke therapy (Class I; level A)

  • IV rt-PA is efficacious and cost-effective for patients with acute ischemic stroke treated within 3 hours of symptom onset

  • 6.6% complication of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH)


Iv tpa nnt

iv TPA NNT

  • 4.5 for 0 -90 minutes

  • 9.0 for 91-180 minutes

  • 14.1 for 181-270 minutes

  • 21.4 for 271-360 minutes


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

DOOR TO NEEDLE TIME <60 MINS

(Class I; level A)

  • The above figure demonstrates that the likelihood of a favorable clinical outcome diminishes as time to the initiation of IV rt-PA initiation increases.

  • This model was derived from a pooled analysis of major IV rt-PA strokes trials-the ATLANTIS Parts A and B, ECASS I and II, and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Parts I and II trials-after adjustment for age, baseline glucose concentration, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, baseline diastolic blood pressure, history of hypertension, and interaction between age and baseline NIHSS measurement.


3 to 4 5 hours window class i level b

3 to 4.5 hours window(Class I; Level B)

  • Compared with the NINDS rt-PA trial the design of ECASS III had three notable differences in exclusion criteria:

  • (1) Exclusion criteria included age greater than 80 years

  • (2) Severe stroke (NIHSS score greater than 25)

  • (3) History of diabetes with prior stroke


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

Inclusion and Exclusion characteristics of Patients AIS who could be treated with IV tpa within 3 hours from symptom onset

  • Inclusion criteria

    • Diagnosis of AIS causing measurable neurological deficit

    • Onset of symptoms < 3hours before beginning treatment

    • Age >18 or older


Exclusion criteria

Exclusion Criteria

  • Significant head trauma or prior stroke in the last 3 months

  • Symptoms suggest SAH

  • Arterial puncture in non compressible site <7 days

  • History of previous ICH

  • Intracranial neoplasm, AVM or aneurysm

  • Recent intracranial or intraspinal surgery

  • Elevated BP (SBP >185 or DBP> 110 mm Hg)

  • Active internal bleeding

  • Platelet count <100,000

  • Heparin received <48 hours resulting in elevated PTT

  • Current use of anticoagulant with INR >1.7 or PT >15 secs

  • Current use of Direct Thrombin inhibitors or factor Xa inhibitors

  • Blood glucose concentration <50 mg/dl

  • CT with multilobar infarction (> 1/3 of cerebral hemisphere)


Relative exclusion criteria class iib level c

RELATIVE EXCLUSION CRITERIAClass IIB; level C

  • CONSIDER RISK TO BENEFIT OF IVrTPA ADMINSTRATION CAREFULLY IF ANY OF THESE RELATIVE CONTRAINDICATIONS EXISTS:

    • MINOR OR RAPIDLY IMPROVING SYMPTOMS

    • SEIZURE AT ONSET WITH POST ICTAL IMPAIRMENTS

    • MAJOR SURGERY OR SERIOUS TRAUMA <14 DAYS

    • RECENT GI OR URINARY TRACT HEMORRHAGE <21 DAYS

    • RECENT ACUTE MI <3 MONTHS


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

  • “1/3 of patients who are not treated with IVrTPA due to mild or rapid improvement of symptoms will have a poor final stroke outcome”

BMJ 2004;328;326

10


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

Neurology.2009 Jun2;72(22):1941-7

11


Lessons learned

LESSONS LEARNED...

  • Acute ischemic stroke is typically a clinical diagnosis.

  • A noncontrast CT scan is necessary to exclude intracranial hemorrhage. When the diagnosis is unclear, additional neuroimaging studies, such as MRI or CT angiography, may be helpful

  • Minor or isolated symptoms typically are not treated However, treating isolated disabling symptoms, such as aphasia, is reasonable.

  • If the exact time of symptom onset cannot be determined, then the time the patient was last seen to be normal should be substituted for the time of symptom onset


Notes on specific eligibility criteria

Notes on specific eligibility criteria

  • The finger-stick blood glucose level should be reviewed during the eligibility evaluation

  • It is reasonable to proceed with IV rt-PA administration prior to obtaining coagulation results if there is no clinical suspicion of a potential abnormality and awaiting theses results would delay treatment

  • Ask about use of new anticoagulants, use in last 48h may limit use of iv TPA administration

  • Treatment in the setting of myocardial infarction is often a consideration in consultation with cardiology

  • Stroke patients with recent surgery may be considered for thrombolysis or Endovascular thrombectomy if available at experienced center


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

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Catheter guided endovascular interventions

Catheter guided endovascular interventions

  • Patients elegible for IVrTPA should receive it even if endovascular treatments are being considered (Class I; Level A)

  • As with IVrTPA reduced TIME from symptom onset to reperfusion therapy is highly correlated with better outcomes (Class I; level B)

  • Stent retrievers such as Solitaire FR and Trevo are preferred for coil retrievers over the Merci device when mechanical thrombectomy is used (Class I; Level A)

  • Intra-arterial therapy or mechanical thrombectomy is reasonable in patients who have contraindications for IVrTPA (Class IIa, level C)

  • Rescue intra-arterial therapy or mechanical thrombectomy may be reasonable approaches to recanalization to patients with large artery occlusion and no response to IVrTPA (Class IIb; level B)


Iv r tpa administration protocols class i level b

IV r TPA administration protocolsClass I; Level B

  • Infuse at 0.9mg/kg max dose 90 mg over 60 min, 10% dose bolus

  • Admit to NICU or Stroke Unit for monitoring

  • If severe headache, acute peak hypertension, nausea or vomiting, or worsening of neurological exam, discontinue infusion and obtain STAT CT

  • Measure blood pressure and perform assessments every 15 min during infusion and after two hours, every 30 min for 6 hours, then hourly until 24 hours completed

  • Increase frequency of BP monitoring if SBP>180 or DBP>105, administer IV blood pressure medicines as per protocol to maintain below that range

  • Delay placement of NG tubes, indwelling catheters

  • Follow up CT or MRI of brain w/o at 24 h post IVrTPA

  • Have protocols for STAT assessment and treatment of symptomatic ICH or angiodema


Action points

Action Points!!!

  • TIME = BRAIN

  • DOOR TO NEEDLE TIME <60 MIN

  • REGIONAL STROKE NETWORKS

  • EXPANDED ELIGIBILITY FOR IVrTPA

  • ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENTS MAY BENEFIT SELECTED PATIENTS

  • MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM APPROACH FAVORS PATIENTS OUTCOMES


Management of acute ischemic stroke and transitory ischemic attack

Valley Baptist Neuroscience Team


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