Gilded Age Politics and the Progressive Era (1865 – 1920). Teddy Roosevelt William Jennings Bryan. Robert La Follette. Woodrow Wilson. Well-Defined Voting Blocs. Democratic Bloc. Republican Bloc.
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Teddy Roosevelt William Jennings Bryan
Robert La Follette
Big Issues: Patronage, Civil Service reform, tariff, personalities
1) Anti- tariffs
2) Anti- Gold Standard or for Bimetallism
Pro-gold standardKey Political Issues
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)-Arthur: restricted Chinese immigration until 1943.
Pendleton Act (1883)- Arthur: started civil service reforms and a new alliance between big business and political parties.
Dawes Act (1887)-Cleveland [first term]: Goal to force Native Americans off of reservations and assimilate them into white culture.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)-Cleveland [first term]: First attempt to regulate the railroads
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)-Harrison: First attempt to break up trusts in all industries under 14th amendment.
Democrat and Populist
“The Cross of Gold” speech
“16 to 1” silver to gold ratio
16 to 1 ounces and Bimetallism
It was a white, urban middle class movement
They fought the decline in morality caused by industrialization and urbanization.
A. Limit power of the trusts
B. Attack political corruption
C. Increase Efficiency
D. Consumer Protection
(Sherman Anti-trust Act + Interstate Commerce Act)
They exposed corruption of political machines, life insurance companies, money trusts, and tariff lobbies.
TR was the first modern president
He used the White House as a “bully pulpit.”
* Consumer Protection
Mediated strikes like the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
This restored the damaged image of labor unions (violent strikes of the 1890’s) in the public eye and led to their rebirth
TR broke up 44 trusts like the Northern Securities Company, a railroad trust, using the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890.
TR made a distinction between
a. “good trusts”
b. “bad trusts”
After reading Upton Sinclair’s, The Jungle, TR pushed several pieces of legislation through Congress:
a. Meat Inspection Act (1906)
b. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
T.R. decided to honor the two-term tradition (Washington precedent)
Hand-picked William Howard Taft, his Secretary of War, to be his successor.
He promised not to seek a third term.
POSED AS A PROGRESSIVE
Trustbuster (90 cases prosecuted)
16th Amendment ratified in 1913
Taft angered Teddy Roosevelt in 1912 leading to TR’s unsuccessful run for a third term.
Lost the 1912 Election to Woodrow Wilson.
William H. Taft
Eugene V. Debs
The status of African-Americans had declined steadily since the Plessy v. Ferguson decision (1896) which created the “separate but equal” doctrine.
Progressives did nothing about segregation and lynching:
In the early 1900’s, CCC takes over the women’s right movement from Susan B. Anthony.
She created the “Winning Strategy”.
Carrie Chapman Catt