Assessment
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Assessment. To collect and INTERPRET information about a client or subject Remember, the data do not speak for themselves The purpose of assessment: biopsychosocial formulation Dynamic formulation The results of an assessment process will be used idiographically

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Assessment

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Assessment

Assessment

  • To collect and INTERPRET information about a client or subject

    • Remember, the data do not speak for themselves

  • The purpose of assessment: biopsychosocial formulation

    • Dynamic formulation

  • The results of an assessment process will be used idiographically

    • Although most assessment tools are nomothetic

      • i.e., standardized procedure and established norms


Physical assessment tools

Physical Assessment Tools

  • Medical examination: referral to rule out medical disorders with psychological or behavioral concomitants or sequelae

  • Neuropsychological examination

    • EEG: electrical activity

    • CAT scan: locate abnormalities in the brain

    • MRI: view anatomical features of the CNS, especially the brain

    • fMRI: anatomy and function

    • PET: monitors metabolic processes


Assessment

fMRI

A:\


Standardization

Standardization

  • Two types:

    • Administration and scoring

    • Sampling

  • Reliability:

    • Is a test consistent?

      • Test-retest

      • Inter-rater

  • Validity

    • Is the test measuring what it purports to measure?


Important note

Important note:

We can have reliability without validity

But

We cannot have validity without reliability.


The clinical interview

The clinical interview

  • A GOOD interview is a clinician’s best assessment tool (according to Dr. S).

    • Structured: intake interview

    • Unstructured: suitability for therapy

    • Semi-structured: diagnostic

  • Clinical interview criticized: observer bias


Mental status exam

Mental Status Exam

  • A structured interview, sometimes embedded within a semi-structured interview.

    • Tests cognitive functioning

      • Eg.: Clarity of thought, orientation, ability to follow instructions


Projective tests

Projective Tests

  • Presentation of ambiguous stimuli

  • The purpose is to tap unconscious mental processes


Some of the most common projective tests

Some of the most common Projective Tests

  • Rorschach Inkblot Test

  • Thematic Apperception Test

  • Drawing Tests

    • Draw A family

    • House-Tree-Person

    • Kinetic Family Drawing


A rorschach type stimulus

A Rorschach-type Stimulus

  • “What might this be”

    • Similar to seeing objects in clouds

    • Useful for assessing how the client views his/her world


A tat card stimulus

A TAT-card Stimulus

  • Tell me a story; a complete story with a beginning, a middle and an end. What is happening in the picture. What happened before, and how will it end.

  • Useful for learning about clients’ relationships


Drawing tests

Drawing Tests

  • Useful with children

    • Develops rapport

    • Aids in diagnosis

  • Also useful with non-verbal adults


Personality inventories

Personality Inventories

  • Usually personality inventories consist of a series of questions to which the respondents answer “true” or “false” (“yes”/”no”)

  • The scoring is objective

  • Most popular is MMPI2: designed to identify psychopathology

  • CPI also frequently used but is designed to identify positive psychological characteristics


Mmpi profile

MMPI-Profile

  • Left side: validity scales ?, L, F, K.

    • An advantage of the MMPI

  • Right side: 10 clinical scales

    • Designed to identify pathology.


Misuses of the mmpi

Misuses of the MMPI

  • Hiring and promotion decisions in business: the test is designed to detect pathology, and normed on a psychiatric sample

  • Elevated scores in a non-psychiatric sample may not have the same meaning as in a psychiatric sample


Response inventories

Response Inventories

  • Tests which are focused on a specific area of functioning

  • Example: Beck Depression Inventory (text p. 94)


Other psychological assessment tools

Other psychological assessment tools

  • Psychophysiological tests: measure autonomic nervous system functioning

    • Example: Polygraph (lie detector)

  • Neuropsychological tests:

    • Example: Bender - Gestalt


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