History 13.2

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Objectives. Identify global cultures and traditions related to food. Terms. Intro. Food (what you eat) has been dictated by TraditionReligionCultureClimateWealth. Asian Cuisine. . China. Cuisine is based on Tao (dow), the way, the belief that a single guiding principle orders the universe, ying and yangFoods should not be forced to be something they are not, kept in most natural and pure state, each has its own inherent character, hot-coldEg. cooked soybean-hot, vinegar-mild, spinach-co30088

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History 13.2

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1. History 13.2 Cuisines of the World

2. Objectives Identify global cultures and traditions related to food

3. Terms

4. Intro Food (what you eat) has been dictated by Tradition Religion Culture Climate Wealth

5. Asian Cuisine

6. China Cuisine is based on Tao (dow), the way, the belief that a single guiding principle orders the universe, ying and yang Foods should not be forced to be something they are not, kept in most natural and pure state, each has its own inherent character, hot-cold Eg. cooked soybean-hot, vinegar-mild, spinach-cold

7. China Each affects a different part of body: stomach, liver, heart, lungs, kidneys

8. China Another important principle is harmony and balance- tan (grains,rice) with ts’ai (vegetables/meat)

9. China Mandarin, Northern China Elaborate, delicate specialties prepared for imperial court in Peking Typical flavors: soy bean paste, dark soy sauce, rice wine, onions, garlic, wheat rather than rice, dumplings, noodles steamed buns Dishes: bird’s nest soup, Peking Duck, Mu Shoo Pork

10. China Szechwan-Hunan, Western China Hot, spicy foods Chilies, Szechwan peppers, five spice powder, fennel Kung Pao Chicken (Hunan) and Hot and Sour Soup (Szechwan)

11. China Canton First Chinese introduced to America To attract Americans invented Chop Suey and fortune cookies Sweet and Sour Pork, Egg Foo Yung, Lemon Chicken

12. Japan Highly stylized, artistic presentation, almost no spice/herb Soy, vinegar Tea introduced by chinese in 13th century Simple fresh seafood, vegetables, rice Tempura- thin batter and deep fry (Portugese) Sashimi/sushi- raw fish/rice

13. Japan Yakimosno- broiled food: yakitori (marinated, skewered chicken), teriaki (marinated meat or fish), sinoyaleil (fish salted 1-2 hrs. before broiling), tappan-yaki (table-top grill) Light clear soups and miso (fermented soy bean paste)

14. India

15. India Heavily influenced by religion (Hindu/Vegetarian) Geographically important part of trade route Many spices, more flavor combinations than almost anywhere else, typical kitchen stocks over 30 spices 2,000 varieties of rice, Curry, Chutney, Naan, Tandoor Oven

16. Spice Route

17. Middle East

18. Middle East While each country’s cuisine is distinct, countries of the Middle East share many common foods. Lamb, eggplant and yogurt Spices and flavorings include pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, lemon, lime, garlic mint and dill

19. Middle East Climate and religion (Muslim) preclude the use of cattle, lamb is often used Stuffed grape leaves

20. Africa

21. Africa Home to 8,000 languages Influenced by hundreds of years of invasions, settlers and trade with other countries Diverse landscape: deserts, rainforests, lakes, coastline

22. Africa Common food staples: beans, lentils, barley, millet, wheat, peanuts, yams Common meals: grains (breads, dumplings, biscuits), stews (vegetables, beans, meat), fish on coast, milk and dry curd cheeses inland Coconut, banana, plantains, palm nuts

23. Africa Influenced mainly by European settlers: Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, French, British who brought strawberries, asparagus, farm animals, spices from India, the Far East and Latin America

24. Caribbean

25. Caribbean Abundant natural resources, tropical climate Martinique and Haiti settled by French, Jamaica and Barbados by British, Puerto Rico and Cuba by Spanish Native foods: allspice, sugar cane, coconut, mangos, bananas, papayas, plantains, seafood Settlers brought flour, olive oil, spices, pigs, chicken, cattle

26. Caribbean Local specialties: conch soup, Jamaican jerk, papaya salad, mango pork

27. Latin/South America

28. Latin/South America Aztec and Mayan cultures were highly developed before Europeans arrived Native foods: corn, beans, tomatoes, potatoes, squash, peppers, bananas, avocados and cacao beans

29. North America Native American: Succotash (stew of corn and beans, Hominy (corn treated with lye, dried, reconstituted, and slow cooked), relied on wild game (turkey, deer, buffalo), also cranberries and tomatoes

30. North America English: East coast French: Midwest, Canada Spanish: Florida, Gulf Coast, California, Southwest Dutch: Pennsylvania Swedish: upper Midwest

31. North America Native foods: corn, beans, peanuts, pumpkins, vanilla, sweet and hot peppers, tomatoes, avocados, tabacco

32. North America New England Clambake Clam chowder Maple syrup and candy

33. North America Pennsylvania Dutch (Quakers, Amish, Mennonites), meals are heavy, pot pies and scrapple Southern: hush puppies (corn dumplings fried) chitlins (fried or boiled hog intestines) pecan pie

34. North America Creole and Cajun: blends French, American Indian, African and Spanish Roux: equal amounts of fat and flour cooked 20-30 minutes, rich brown Jambalaya: rice, chicken andouille, vegetables, herbs, much like paella Andouille: pork sausage, strong, smoky, garlicky Gumbo: hearty thick soup/stew, roux, okra, filé

35. North America Southwest: tex-mex, chili

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