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Covalent Bonding. Time to SHARE. OBJ 1 Define covalent bonding. Definition – Bond formed when electrons are SHARED Usually occurs between two non-metals. Examples. Carbon and Chlorine C +4 Cl -1 Formula CCl 4. Nitrogen and Hydrogen N -3 H +1 Formula NH 3.

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Covalent bonding

Covalent Bonding

Time to SHARE


Obj 1 define covalent bonding
OBJ 1 Define covalent bonding

  • Definition – Bond formed when electrons are SHARED

  • Usually occurs between two non-metals


Examples
Examples

  • Carbon and Chlorine

  • C+4

  • Cl-1

  • Formula

    • CCl4

  • Nitrogen and Hydrogen

  • N-3

  • H+1

  • Formula

    • NH3


Obj 2 identify what compounds are covalent based on the placement on the periodic table
OBJ 2 - Identify what compounds are covalent based on the placement on the periodic table.

Which of the following are covalent?

NaCl N2O3

H2O CCl4

MgONH3


Obj 3 determine which elements will form diatomic molecules
OBJ 3 - Determine which elements will form diatomic molecules

  • Diatomic molecules are covalent compounds between two identical elements.

  • Only certain elements that will do this.

  • They are:

    • Hydrogen H2

    • Nitrogen N2

    • Oxygen O2

    • Fluorine F2

    • Chlorine Cl2

    • Bromine Br2

    • Iodine I2


Obj 4 list prefixes and suffixes used in covalent compound names
OBJ 4 - list prefixes and suffixes used in covalent compound names

  • We use prefixes based on the # of atoms

  • # of atoms is determined by the subscript in the formula (H2O)

  • First element will always have a prefix (Except when we only have 1 then we don’t use a prefix) second element will ALWAYS have a prefix

  • Note: When a prefix ending in ‘o’ or ‘a’ is added to ‘oxide’, the final vowel in the prefix is dropped.



Obj 5 name covalent compounds given chemical formulas

H names 2O

Dihydrogen monoxide

NH3

Nitrogen trihydride

BF3

Boron triflouride

Si2O4

Disilicontetroxide

OBJ 5 -name covalent compounds given chemical formulas


Your turn name the compound

P names 4O10

Tetraphosphorus decoxide

SO2

Sufur dioxide

CCl4

Carbon tetrachloride

P2O3

Diphosphorous trioxide

IF7

Iodine heptaflouride

Your turn name the compound


Obj 6 formulate the chemical formula of a covalent compound given the name
OBJ 6 formulate the chemical formula of a covalent compound given the name

  • This is a little different from ionic compounds

  • We will USE THE PREFIXES

  • Examples:

  • Diphosphorouspentoxide

    • P2O5

  • Nitrogen trichloride

    • NCl3


Your turn
Your turn given the name

  • Sulfur hexafluoride

    • SF6

  • Carbon tetrachloride

    • CCl4

  • Dinitrogen pentoxide

    • N2O5


Cl given the name

Cl

C

Cl

H

H

H

H

Cl

N

H

O

So what does it look like?


Bell work friday
Bell Work - Friday given the name

Which system is responsible for producing enzymes that aid in breaking down substances to be absorbed for the body’s growth and repair?

A Digestive system

B Reproductive system

C Respiratory system

D Skeletal system


Obj 7 identify shapes based on vsepr theory
Obj 7 Identify shapes based on VSEPR theory given the name

  • What is VSEPR theory?

  • Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

  • Electrons push away from each other


So what does that have to do with shape

Cl given the name

Cl

C

Cl

Cl

So what does that have to do with shape?

  • Look at this diagram

  • What would the electrons be doing to each other?

    • Repel because they are are the same charge



The shapes
The shapes given the name

  • Paste your handout in your notes

  • You will need to know these shapes for the test


0 lone pairs given the name

1 lone pair

2 lone pairs


So how can you tell what shape it will be
So how can you tell what shape it will be? given the name

  • You need to know the # of electron groups and the # of lone pairs


What do you see

F given the name

F

F

What do you see?

  • How many electrons are around B now?

  • Is this okay?

  • In covalent bonds YES

  • The # of bonds is the same as the # of valence e-

B


So lets draw one
So lets draw one given the name

  • Start with the Lewis Dot Diagram


So how do you draw the lewis dot diagram
So how do you draw the Lewis Dot Diagram? given the name

  • Determine the central atom

  • (use electronegativities)

  • The # of bonds possible is the same as the # of valence e- the central atom has

  • NOTE THIS IS NOT LIKE IONIC – DON’T ASSUME ONLY 8 ELECTRONS


How? given the name

BF3

Electronegativity

B – 2.0

F – 4.0

Least electronegative is B

B


Next step
Next step given the name

  • How many valence electrons does it have?

  • 3

  • The lines will represent the bonds that it will make

B


Next step1
Next step given the name

F

  • Add your surrounding atoms

  • Then add electrons around them

B

F

F


Your turn white board practice
Your Turn White Board Practice given the name

CCl4

H2O

O

H

H

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

Cl


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