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Covalent Bonding. Time to SHARE. OBJ 1 Define covalent bonding. Definition – Bond formed when electrons are SHARED Usually occurs between two non-metals. Examples. Carbon and Chlorine C +4 Cl -1 Formula CCl 4. Nitrogen and Hydrogen N -3 H +1 Formula NH 3.

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covalent bonding

Covalent Bonding

Time to SHARE

obj 1 define covalent bonding
OBJ 1 Define covalent bonding
  • Definition – Bond formed when electrons are SHARED
  • Usually occurs between two non-metals
examples
Examples
  • Carbon and Chlorine
  • C+4
  • Cl-1
  • Formula
    • CCl4
  • Nitrogen and Hydrogen
  • N-3
  • H+1
  • Formula
    • NH3
obj 2 identify what compounds are covalent based on the placement on the periodic table
OBJ 2 - Identify what compounds are covalent based on the placement on the periodic table.

Which of the following are covalent?

NaCl N2O3

H2O CCl4

MgONH3

obj 3 determine which elements will form diatomic molecules
OBJ 3 - Determine which elements will form diatomic molecules
  • Diatomic molecules are covalent compounds between two identical elements.
  • Only certain elements that will do this.
  • They are:
    • Hydrogen H2
    • Nitrogen N2
    • Oxygen O2
    • Fluorine F2
    • Chlorine Cl2
    • Bromine Br2
    • Iodine I2
obj 4 list prefixes and suffixes used in covalent compound names
OBJ 4 - list prefixes and suffixes used in covalent compound names
  • We use prefixes based on the # of atoms
  • # of atoms is determined by the subscript in the formula (H2O)
  • First element will always have a prefix (Except when we only have 1 then we don’t use a prefix) second element will ALWAYS have a prefix
  • Note: When a prefix ending in ‘o’ or ‘a’ is added to ‘oxide’, the final vowel in the prefix is dropped.
obj 5 name covalent compounds given chemical formulas
H2O

Dihydrogen monoxide

NH3

Nitrogen trihydride

BF3

Boron triflouride

Si2O4

Disilicontetroxide

OBJ 5 -name covalent compounds given chemical formulas
your turn name the compound
P4O10

Tetraphosphorus decoxide

SO2

Sufur dioxide

CCl4

Carbon tetrachloride

P2O3

Diphosphorous trioxide

IF7

Iodine heptaflouride

Your turn name the compound
obj 6 formulate the chemical formula of a covalent compound given the name
OBJ 6 formulate the chemical formula of a covalent compound given the name
  • This is a little different from ionic compounds
  • We will USE THE PREFIXES
  • Examples:
  • Diphosphorouspentoxide
    • P2O5
  • Nitrogen trichloride
    • NCl3
your turn
Your turn
  • Sulfur hexafluoride
    • SF6
  • Carbon tetrachloride
    • CCl4
  • Dinitrogen pentoxide
    • N2O5
slide13

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

H

H

H

H

Cl

N

H

O

So what does it look like?

bell work friday
Bell Work - Friday

Which system is responsible for producing enzymes that aid in breaking down substances to be absorbed for the body’s growth and repair?

A Digestive system

B Reproductive system

C Respiratory system

D Skeletal system

obj 7 identify shapes based on vsepr theory
Obj 7 Identify shapes based on VSEPR theory
  • What is VSEPR theory?
  • Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
  • Electrons push away from each other
so what does that have to do with shape

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

Cl

So what does that have to do with shape?
  • Look at this diagram
  • What would the electrons be doing to each other?
    • Repel because they are are the same charge
slide17
So how would that affect the shape?
  • This is called a tetrahedral shape
the shapes
The shapes
  • Paste your handout in your notes
  • You will need to know these shapes for the test
slide19

0 lone pairs

1 lone pair

2 lone pairs

so how can you tell what shape it will be
So how can you tell what shape it will be?
  • You need to know the # of electron groups and the # of lone pairs
what do you see

F

F

F

What do you see?
  • How many electrons are around B now?
  • Is this okay?
  • In covalent bonds YES
  • The # of bonds is the same as the # of valence e-

B

so lets draw one
So lets draw one
  • Start with the Lewis Dot Diagram
so how do you draw the lewis dot diagram
So how do you draw the Lewis Dot Diagram?
  • Determine the central atom
  • (use electronegativities)
  • The # of bonds possible is the same as the # of valence e- the central atom has
  • NOTE THIS IS NOT LIKE IONIC – DON’T ASSUME ONLY 8 ELECTRONS
slide24
How?

BF3

Electronegativity

B – 2.0

F – 4.0

Least electronegative is B

B

next step
Next step
  • How many valence electrons does it have?
  • 3
  • The lines will represent the bonds that it will make

B

next step1
Next step

F

  • Add your surrounding atoms
  • Then add electrons around them

B

F

F

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