Covalent bonding
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Covalent Bonding. Time to SHARE. OBJ 1 Define covalent bonding. Definition – Bond formed when electrons are SHARED Usually occurs between two non-metals. Examples. Carbon and Chlorine C +4 Cl -1 Formula CCl 4. Nitrogen and Hydrogen N -3 H +1 Formula NH 3.

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Covalent Bonding

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Covalent bonding

Covalent Bonding

Time to SHARE


Obj 1 define covalent bonding

OBJ 1 Define covalent bonding

  • Definition – Bond formed when electrons are SHARED

  • Usually occurs between two non-metals


Examples

Examples

  • Carbon and Chlorine

  • C+4

  • Cl-1

  • Formula

    • CCl4

  • Nitrogen and Hydrogen

  • N-3

  • H+1

  • Formula

    • NH3


Obj 2 identify what compounds are covalent based on the placement on the periodic table

OBJ 2 - Identify what compounds are covalent based on the placement on the periodic table.

Which of the following are covalent?

NaClN2O3

H2OCCl4

MgONH3


Obj 3 determine which elements will form diatomic molecules

OBJ 3 - Determine which elements will form diatomic molecules

  • Diatomic molecules are covalent compounds between two identical elements.

  • Only certain elements that will do this.

  • They are:

    • Hydrogen H2

    • Nitrogen N2

    • Oxygen O2

    • Fluorine F2

    • Chlorine Cl2

    • Bromine Br2

    • Iodine I2


Obj 4 list prefixes and suffixes used in covalent compound names

OBJ 4 - list prefixes and suffixes used in covalent compound names

  • We use prefixes based on the # of atoms

  • # of atoms is determined by the subscript in the formula (H2O)

  • First element will always have a prefix (Except when we only have 1 then we don’t use a prefix) second element will ALWAYS have a prefix

  • Note: When a prefix ending in ‘o’ or ‘a’ is added to ‘oxide’, the final vowel in the prefix is dropped.


You need to memorize these

You need to memorize these!


Obj 5 name covalent compounds given chemical formulas

H2O

Dihydrogen monoxide

NH3

Nitrogen trihydride

BF3

Boron triflouride

Si2O4

Disilicontetroxide

OBJ 5 -name covalent compounds given chemical formulas


Your turn name the compound

P4O10

Tetraphosphorus decoxide

SO2

Sufur dioxide

CCl4

Carbon tetrachloride

P2O3

Diphosphorous trioxide

IF7

Iodine heptaflouride

Your turn name the compound


Obj 6 formulate the chemical formula of a covalent compound given the name

OBJ 6 formulate the chemical formula of a covalent compound given the name

  • This is a little different from ionic compounds

  • We will USE THE PREFIXES

  • Examples:

  • Diphosphorouspentoxide

    • P2O5

  • Nitrogen trichloride

    • NCl3


Your turn

Your turn

  • Sulfur hexafluoride

    • SF6

  • Carbon tetrachloride

    • CCl4

  • Dinitrogen pentoxide

    • N2O5


Covalent bonding

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

H

H

H

H

Cl

N

H

O

So what does it look like?


Bell work friday

Bell Work - Friday

Which system is responsible for producing enzymes that aid in breaking down substances to be absorbed for the body’s growth and repair?

A Digestive system

B Reproductive system

C Respiratory system

D Skeletal system


Obj 7 identify shapes based on vsepr theory

Obj 7 Identify shapes based on VSEPR theory

  • What is VSEPR theory?

  • Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion

  • Electrons push away from each other


So what does that have to do with shape

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

Cl

So what does that have to do with shape?

  • Look at this diagram

  • What would the electrons be doing to each other?

    • Repel because they are are the same charge


Covalent bonding

  • So how would that affect the shape?

  • This is called a tetrahedral shape


The shapes

The shapes

  • Paste your handout in your notes

  • You will need to know these shapes for the test


Covalent bonding

0 lone pairs

1 lone pair

2 lone pairs


So how can you tell what shape it will be

So how can you tell what shape it will be?

  • You need to know the # of electron groups and the # of lone pairs


What do you see

F

F

F

What do you see?

  • How many electrons are around B now?

  • Is this okay?

  • In covalent bonds YES

  • The # of bonds is the same as the # of valence e-

B


So lets draw one

So lets draw one

  • Start with the Lewis Dot Diagram


So how do you draw the lewis dot diagram

So how do you draw the Lewis Dot Diagram?

  • Determine the central atom

  • (use electronegativities)

  • The # of bonds possible is the same as the # of valence e- the central atom has

  • NOTE THIS IS NOT LIKE IONIC – DON’T ASSUME ONLY 8 ELECTRONS


Covalent bonding

How?

BF3

Electronegativity

B – 2.0

F – 4.0

Least electronegative is B

B


Next step

Next step

  • How many valence electrons does it have?

  • 3

  • The lines will represent the bonds that it will make

B


Next step1

Next step

F

  • Add your surrounding atoms

  • Then add electrons around them

B

F

F


Your turn white board practice

Your Turn White Board Practice

CCl4

H2O

O

H

H

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

Cl


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