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CORBA. Team 12 Jean Lefever Brian Podolny Teresa Chang Russ Weitz. Introduction.

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Corba

CORBA

Team 12

Jean Lefever

Brian Podolny

Teresa Chang

Russ Weitz


Introduction
Introduction

CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) is a standard that enables an object written in one programming language, running on one platform to interact with objects across the network that are written in other programming languages and running on other platforms.

For example, a client object written in C++ and running under Windows can communicate with an object on a remote machine written in Java running under UNIX.


OMG

The CORBA specification was developed by the Object Management Group (OMG).

The OMG is an international, not-for-profit group consisting of approximately 800 companies and organizations defining standards for distributed object computing

CORBA is only one of the specifications they develop. They are also behind other key object oriented standards such as UML (Unified Modeling Language).


History
History

The OMG was established in 1988 and the initial CORBA specification came out in 1992. Over the past 10 years significant revisions have taken place.

Version 2.0, which defined a common protocol for specifying how implementations from different vendors can communicate, was released in the mid-nineties.

The current version of CORBA is 3.0, which introduced the CORBA Component Model.


Today
Today

Today, CORBA serves as middleware for a variety of large enterprise level applications.

One of the most important and most frequent uses is for servers that must handle a large number of clients, at high hit rates, with high reliability.

The current users of CORBA are diverse - including The Weather Channel, GNOME, US Army, CNN, and Charles Schwab.


Specification vs implementation
Specification vs. Implementation

CORBA, as defined by the OMG, is a standard or specification and not a particular piece of software.

CORBA 3.0 is actually a suite of 10 standards, each defining aspects of a CORBA implementation.

Several implementations of the CORBA standard exist. Among the most widely used are IBM’s SOM (a.k.a. SOMobjects) and DSOM architectures. There are also free implementations available for general use.


Corba integrations
CORBA Integrations

An implementation of CORBA has been integrated into Netscape browsers.

CORBA has been built into Netscape ONE (Open Network Environment) - Netscape’s application environment based on open internet standards.

The Enterprise Edition of IBM’s WebSphere (a software platform to help build and deploy high performance web sites) integrates CORBA (as well as Enterprise Java Beans) to build highly transactional, high-volume e-business applications



Corba corba architecture
CORBACORBA Architecture



The primary elements
The Primary Elements

  • IDL

    • Interface Definition Language

  • Client / Server CORBA Objects

    • Abstract objects based upon a concrete implementation

  • ORBs

    • Object Request Brokers

  • GIOP / IIOP

    • General and Internet Inter-Object Protocols


Interface definition language
Interface Definition Language

  • Defines public interface for any CORBA server.

  • C++ like syntax

  • Client and Server implemented based on compilation of the same IDL (usually)

  • OMG has defined mappings for:

    • C, C++, Java, COBOL, Smalltalk, ADA, Lisp, Python, and IDLscript


Highlighted idl features
Highlighted IDL Features

  • Pass by reference and by value

  • In, out, and inout parameters

  • Inheritance

  • Throwing of exceptions

  • The Any Type

  • Callbacks

    • Enables Peer-to-Peer Object Communication.

  • Also supports:

    • structs, unions, enumerations, all c++ scalars, arrays, sequences, octets, strings, constants, and typedefs.




Client server corba objects cont
Client / Server CORBA Objects Cont.

  • Abstract

    • Do not have their own implementation. The elements of a CORBA object (interface, implementation, and location) are held rendered via other elements.

  • Implemented via a Servant

    • A servant is a block of code (usually an instance of a class) which implements the public interface of the CORBA object. Depending on the server policies, there may or may not be multiple instances of the servant and it may or may not be multi-threaded.

  • Configured in code or at server startup

    • Unlike COM+ and EJB the policies for a CORBA object which control things such as Security, threading, and persistence are not console configurable


Object request brokers orbs
Object Request Brokers (Orbs)

  • Responsible for all communication

    • Locating objects

      • Implementation specific

      • Known IOR(Inter-Object Reference)

      • Naming and Trading Services( DSN-like)

    • Transferring invocations and return values

    • Notifying other ORBs of hosted Objects

  • Must be able to communicate IDL invocations via IIOP

  • If an ORB is OMG compliant, then it is interoperable with all other OMG compliant ORBs


Additional orb services
Additional ORB Services

  • Interface Repository

    • A Database of all of the IDL for compiled objects running on the ORB

  • Implementation Repository

    • A Database containing policy information and the implementation details for the CORBA objects running on the ORB

  • Load Balancing

  • Fail-over support

  • Security


Application in software projects
Application in Software Projects

  • Rapid development of API’s

  • Inter-language and operating system operability

  • Legacy system wrappers

  • IIOP faster than HTTP

  • Simplifies development of distributed applications


Drawbacks
Drawbacks

  • Lower Level than COM+/.NET/EJB

  • Configuration in Code

  • Steeper Learning Curve than other solutions.


Object management architecture oma
Object Management Architecture(OMA)

  • Center of all the activity undertaken by OMG

  • OMA specifies a range of architectural entities surrounding the core ORB, which is CORBA proper

  • Detailed specifications for each component and interface category is populated in OMA reference Model



Corba services
CORBA Services

  • CORBA Services provides basic functionality, similar to the services that system library calls do in UNIX. Functions includes creating objects, controlling access to objects, keeping track of relocated objects and to consistently maintain relationship between objects.


Horizontal corba facilities
Horizontal CORBA Facilities

  • Horizontal CORBA Facilities sit between the CORBA services and Application objects. These components providing support across an enterprise and across business. Four facilities: the Printing Facilities, the Secure Time Facilities, the Internationalization Facilities, and Mobile Agent Facilities.


Domain vertical corba facilities
Domain(Vertical) CORBA Facilities

  • Domain CORBA Facilities are the most exciting work at OMG. Define a standard interfaces for standard objects shared by companies within a specific vertical market(e.g. healthcare, manufacturing, finance). Now nine industries have their own OMG task force.


Application objects
Application Objects

  • Topmost part of the OMA hierarchy.

  • Provide access to application objects that can invoke methods on remote objects through ORB. Application is built from a large number of basic object classes, new classes can be generated or specified provided by CORBA services.

  • Standardization is not required.


Three benefits of using oma
Three Benefits of using OMA

  • Coding is quicker, so application can be deployed sooner

  • Applications designed around discrete services have better architecture

  • Many OMA implementations have enterprise characteristics built in: they’re robust, and they scale


Corba vs dcom
CORBA vs. DCOM

  • DCOM supports an object-oriented model, but differs substantially from classical OO models. DCOM object provides services through one or more distinct interfaces.

  • DCOM is lack of polymorphism, instead, it constructs application from binary components.


Corba vs dcom1
CORBA vs. DCOM

  • The major difference is CORBA is an open specification. DCOM has the potential to evolve at a faster rate than CORBA because the politics will be simpler.

  • CORBA can be deployed far more widely than DCOM and runs in most current OS environment, while DCOM is running almost exclusively in the Windows environment.


Corba vs java rmi
CORBA vs. JAVA/RMI

  • Some overlap between these two, both provide a viable means of building distributed applications.

  • CORBA is concerned with interfaces between objects and applications modeled as objects, Java is primarily concerned with the implementation of these objects.


Corba vs java rmi1
CORBA vs. JAVA/RMI

  • JAVA/RMI systems fall short of seamless integration because of their interoperability requirements with other languages. JAVA/RMI system assumes the homogeneous environment of the JVM, which can only take advantage of Java Object Model.

  • Coexistence between CORBA and Java


The future of corba
The Future of CORBA

  • Much easier for developers to build and run client/server applications written in different languages using the IDL interface

  • Compute-domain benefits

    • Functionality the same as if written to sockets or some other RPC device

  • Business-domain benefits

    • Allows rapid development of full service website


Compute domain enhancements in traditional business
Compute-Domain Enhancementsin traditional business

  • Remote access to all network systems for employees.

    • product descriptions

    • pricing

    • stock

    • order placement

    • customer credit data

  • Business works smarter, not harder


Business domain enhancements for e business
Business-Domain Enhancementsfor e-business

  • Builds on compute-domain work

    • add web functionality to existing internal network

    • uses CORBA’s IDL to integrate new processes

  • Development and maintenance of customer centered e-commerce site is still manageable for IT department.

  • Gives business time to sell product, not fix problems


Companies using corba today
Companies Using CORBA Today

  • AT&T

    • Late 1990’s developed 20 to 40 systems using CORBA for both internal and external access

    • Are certain development time for future projects will be greatly reduced by building reusable frameworks with the OMG

  • The Weather Channel

    • Used CORBA and Linux

    • System is reliable, low maintenance, offers data logging

    • Cut software development time from months to weeks


Companies using corba today1
Companies Using CORBA Today

  • Raytheon Company

    • Needed to update its complex real-time distributed system

    • Built new system using C++ and CORBA

    • Ready to build next generation system


Companies with plans to develop using corba
Companies with Plans to Develop Using CORBA

  • Chase Manhattan Bank

    • Plans to develop wholesale banking service

    • Will use CORBA and Java-based middleware

    • Further plans to introduce Java-based mortgage application service as well as integration with third-party applications possibly by year’s end

  • Nokia Telecommunications

    • Combining use of Orbix and CORBA to continue enhancing products and manage value added services based on a common architecture.


Nokia
NOKIA

“Nokia’s decision [to use CORBA] highlights the continuing adoption of CORBA and is recognition of the fast, effective, scaleable and open approach to the development of powerful, intelligent, mission-critical network services that CORBA offers.”

Colin Newman, VP Marketing at IONA

(Developers of the Orbix ORB)


References
References

  • www.oma.org

  • www.corba.org

  • developer.java.sun.com/developer/ onlineTraining/corba


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