Alexander the Great! Hero or Villain?. R.A.P. Page 2 (left). Name and describe the 5 steps that Philip II took to conquer Greece. I) Alex: HERO. A) Background info. - born in 356 B.C.E. in Macedonia (N of mainland Greece).
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Name and describe the 5 steps that Philip II took to conquer Greece.
A) Background info.
- born in 356 B.C.E. in Macedonia (N of mainland Greece)
- only lived to be 32, ruled for just 13 years, however, many historians consider him the greatest military leader of all time.
- in total, he ruled an empire that stretched from 3,000 miles from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River.
- His empire was the largest empire the world had ever seen!
1) Thebes-Alex unified all of Greece by putting down the rebellion in the polis of Thebes.
- he showed compassion towards some of the rebels, citizens, priests and the family of a poet.
- founded the Egyptian city of Alexandria and named 19 other cities after himself.
- Alexandria, Egypt- became a great center for learning about Greece and the Near Eastern cultures.
- overcame heavy rains and the Indian army’s use of elephants
- became greatly interested in Indian culture/religion and learned more about Hinduism by questioning Indian holy men.
A) Background info:
- Alex’s military accomplishments were due to the powerful military force his father, King Philip II, had left to him after he died.
- his forces killed 6,000 Thebans, sold more than 20,000 citizens into slavery and virtually destroyed the entire city.
- They did not allow any Egyptians to learn or become part of the Greek culture. The Egyptians were excluded from helping the city develop and grow.
- He did not care how many casualties(deaths) occurred including his own troops.
- he plundered the riches of Persepolis (Persia’s great capital) and burnt it to the ground- this was a magnificent center of Persian culture.
- slaughtered males and sold females and children into slavery.
- Due to the horrific weather conditions and poor living, his troops demanded that he turn around and go home.
- On the way home from India, Alexander became ill and died while his forces were in Babylon (present day Iraq) in 323 B.C. E. – he was just 33 years old.
- due to the fact that Alexander did not designate a legitimate heir to the throne, his own relatives and generals fought for control over the land he had conquered.
1) India returned to it’s original rulers
2) Antigonus- became king of Macedonia
3) Ptolemy-established his own dynasty (the Ptolomies) in Egypt.
4) Seleucus- formed his own empire (the Seleucid Empire) in Persia.
5) Greece- Athens and Sparta became independent and the other polises joined either the Delian or the Peloponnesian Leagues
“To whom do you leave your kingdom?”
“To the best and the strongest.”