Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease
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Genetic factors contribute to the development of lgE -mediated allergic disease. For an allergic reaction against a given antigen an individual has first to be exposed to the antigen become sensitized to it by producing IgE antibodies

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Genetic factors contribute to the development of lgE -mediated allergic disease

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Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

Genetic factors contribute to the development of lgE-mediatedallergic disease


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • For an allergic reaction against a given antigen

    • an individual has first to be exposed to the antigen

    • become sensitized to it by producing IgE antibodies

      not all encounters with a potential allergen will lead to sensitization, and not all sensitizations will lead to a symptomatic allergic response, even in atopic individuals

Allergic reactions in non-atopic people, in contrast,

are predominantly due to sensitization to one specific allergen

Atopic individuals often develop multiple types of allergic disease


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • Low doses of antigen can favor the activation ofTH2 cells over TH1 cells, and many common allergens are delivered in low doses to the respiratory mucosa

Many parasitic worms invade their hosts by secreting proteolyticenzyme that break down connective tissue and allow the parasite access to internal tissues, and it has been proposed that these enzymes are particularly active at promoting TH2 responses


Sensitization towards an inhaled allergen

Sensitization towards an inhaled allergen

  • One ubiquitous protease allergen is the cysteine protease Der p 1 present in the feces of the house dust mites (Dermatophagoidespteronyssimus), which provokes allergic reactions in

  • about 20% of the North American population

  • This enzyme has been found to cleave occludin, a protein component of intercellular tight junctions

  • By destroying the integrity of the tight junctions between epithelial cells,Derp 1 may gain abnormal access to subepithelial antigen-presenting cells

  • Enzymes such as Papain may cause occupational allergies


Two types of signals drive b cells into and through cell cycle

Two types of signals drive B cells into and through cell cycle

  • Naive or resting B cells are in G0 stage of cell cycle

  • Activation drives the resting cell into cell cycle progressing through G1, S, G2 and M phase

  • Theevents could be grouped into

    • Competence signals which drive B cells from G0 into early G1 phase to receive next level of signals

    • Progression signals which drive cells from G1 into S phase and ultimately to cell division and differentiation

  • Competence is achieved by signal 1 and signal 2 and depending on the nature of the antigen, B cell activation takes place by different pathways with TI and TD antigens

  • both pathways include signals generated when multivalent antigen binds and crosslinksmIg

  • After an early activation, the interaction of cytokines and possibly other ligands with the B-cell membrane receptors provides progression signals

An effective signal for B-cell activation involves two

distinct signals induced by membrane events


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • The fate of a naive CD4 T cell responding to a peptide presented by a dendritic cell is determined

    • by the cytokines it is exposed to before and during this response

    • and by the intrinsic properties of the antigen

    • the antigen dose, and the route of presentation

Exposure to IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13 favors the development of TH2 cells

IFN-y and IL-12 (and its relatives IL-23 and IL-27) favor TH1-cell development


Sensitization involves class switching to lge production on first contact with an allergen

Sensitization involves class switching to lgE production on first contact with an allergen

IgM

IgD

  • Class switching in the response to thymus-dependent antigens also requires the CD40/CD40L interaction

  • The interactions of numerous cytokines with B cells generate signals required for proliferation and class switching during the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells

  • Binding of the proliferation cytokines, which are released by activated TH cells, provides the progression signal needed for proliferation of activated B cells


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • IL-4 or IL-13 provides the first signal that switches B cells to IgEproduction

  • Cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 activate the Janusfamilytyrosine kinases Jak1 and Jak3 which ultimately leads to phosphorylation of the transcriptional regulator STAT6 in T and B lymphocytes

  • Mice lacking functional IL-4, IL-13, or STAT6 have impaired T H2 responses and impaired IgEswitching


Factors contributing towards allergy

Factors contributing towards allergy

  • The risk of developing allergic disease has both genetic and environmentalcomponents

  • In studies performed in Western industrialized countries, up to 40% of the test population shows an exaggerated tendency to mount IgE responses to a wide variety of common environmental allergens

  • This is the state called atopy

  • Atopic individuals have higher total levels of IgEin the circulation and higher levels of eosinophils than their non-atopic counterparts and are more susceptible to developing allergic diseases such as allergic

    • rhinoconjunctivitis,

    • allergic asthma,

    • or atopic eczema


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

Clustering of disease-susceptibility genes is found for the MHC on chromosome 6p21, and also in several other genomic regions

Susceptibility loci identified by genome screens for asthma, atopic dermatitis, and other immune disorders

The loci with significant linkages are indicated

There is in fact little overlap between susceptibility genes for atopic dermatitis and psoriasis(1,3), suggesting that specific genetic factors are involved in both

There is also some overlap between susceptibility genes for asthma and those for autoimmune diseases(1,6,7,11,16,20 loci)


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • Another region of the genome associated with allergic disease, 5q31-33, contains candidate gene that might be responsible for increased susceptibility

  • This cluster includes the genes for IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

  • First, there is a cluster of tightly linked genes for cytokines that

    • enhance IgE class switching

    • eosinophilsurvival

    • mast -cell proliferation

    • all of which help to produce and maintain an IgE-mediated allergic response

  • In particular, genetic variation in the promoter region of the gene encoding IL-4 has been associated with raised IgE levels in atopic individuals

  • Atopyhas also been associated with a gain-of-function mutation of the a subunit of the IL-4 receptor that causes increased signaling after its ligation


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • A second set of genes in this region of chromosome 5 is the TIM family (for T cell, immunoglobulin domain, and mucin domain), which encode T-cell-surface proteins

  • In mice,

    • Tim-3 protein is specifically expressed on TH1 cells and negatively regulates TH1 responses,

    • whereas Tim-2 (and to a lesser extent Tim-1) is preferentially expressed in, and negatively regulates, T H2 cells

  • Mouse strains that carry different variants of the Tim genes differ both in their susceptibility to allergic inflammation of the airways and in the production of IL-4 and IL-13 by their T cells

  • Inherited variation in the TIM genes in humans has been correlated with airway hyperreactivityor hyperresponsiveness

  • In this condition, contact not only with allergenbut also with nonspecific irritants causes airway narrowing with wheezy breathlessness similar to that seen in asthma


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • The third candidate susceptibility gene in this part of the genome encodes p40, one of the two subunits of IL-12

  • This cytokine promotes TH1 responses

  • and genetic variation in p40 expression that could cause reduced production of IL-12 was found to be associated with more severe asthma

  • A fourth candidate susceptibility gene, that encoding the β-adrenergic receptor, is also encoded in this region

  • Variation in this receptor might be associated with alteration in smooth muscle responsiveness to endogenous and pharmacological ligands


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • One candidate susceptibility gene for both allergic asthma and atopic eczema, at chromosome 11q12-13, encodes the βsubunit of the high-affinity IgEreceptor FceRI


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • An important inherited variation in IgE responses is linked to the HLA class II region (the human MHC class II region) and affects responses to specific allergens, rather than a general susceptibility to atopy

  • IgEproduction in response to particular allergens is associated with certain HLA class II alleles, implying that particular peptide:MHC combinations might favor a strong TH2 response;

  • for example, IgE responses to several ragweed pollen allergens are associated with haplotypes containing the HLA class II allele DRB1*1501

  • Many people are therefore generally predisposed to make TH2 responses and are specifically predisposed to respond to some allergens more than others

  • However, allergic responses to drugs such as penicillin show no association with HLA class II or with the presence or absence of atopy


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • There are also likely to be genes that affect only particular aspects of allergic disease

  • In asthma, for example, there is evidence that different genes affect at least three aspects of the disease-IgE production, the inflammatory response, and clinical responses to particular treatments

  • Polymorphismof the gene on chromosome 20 encoding ADAM33, a metalloproteinase expressed by bronchial smooth muscle cells and lung fibroblasts, has been associated with asthma and bronchial hyperreactivity

  • This is likely to be an example of genetic variation in the pulmonary inflammatory response and in the pathological anatomical changes that occur in the airways (airway remodeling)


Candidate susceptibility genes for asthma

Candidate susceptibilitygenes for asthma


Environmental factors may interact with genetic susceptibility to cause allergic disease

Environmental factors may interact with genetic susceptibility tocause allergic disease.


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • Studies of susceptibility suggest that environmental factors and genetic variation

  • each account for about 50% of the risk of developing a disease such as

  • allergic asthma.

  • The prevalence of atopic allergic diseases, and of asthma in

  • particular, is increasing in economically advanced regions of the world, and

  • this is likely to be due to changing environmental factors.


Genetic factors contribute to the development of lge mediated allergic disease

  • The main candidate environmental factors for the increase in allergy are

  • changes in exposure to infectious diseases in early childhood; the change

  • from 'traditional' rural societies that has meant less early exposure to animal

  • microorganisms and microorganisms in the soil, for example; and changes in

  • the intestinal micro biota, which performs an important immunomodulatory

  • function (discussed in Chapter 12). Changes in exposure to ubiquitous microorganisms

  • as a possible cause of the increase in allergy has received much

  • attention since the idea was first mooted in 1989, and this is known as the

  • hygiene hypothesis (Fig. 14.9). The original proposition was that less hygienic

  • environments, specifically environments that predispose to infections early

  • in childhood, help to protect against the development of atopy and allergic

  • asthma. It was originally proposed that the protective effect might be due to

  • mechanisms that skewed immune responses away from the production of

  • TH2 cells and their associated cytokines, which dispose toward IgE production,

  • and toward the production ofTH1 cells, whose cytokines do not induce

  • class switching to IgE.


Candidate susceptibility genes for asthma1

Candidate susceptibilitygenes for asthma.


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