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Lesson Overview. 34.2 Glands of the Endocrine System. Pituitary Gland . Pituitary gland = bean-sized structure that dangles on a slender stalk of tissue at the base of the brain (off the hypothalamus )

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lesson overview

Lesson Overview

34.2 Glands of the

Endocrine System

pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
  • Pituitary gland = bean-sized structure that dangles on a slender stalk of tissue at the base of the brain (off the hypothalamus)
  • Some of the hormones released by the pituitary control other glands, while others affect other types of tissues
hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
  • Hypothalamus = controls the secretions of the pituitary gland and is the link between the central nervous system and the endocrine system
    • Hormones are made in the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland
    • When the pituitary gland is stimulated, it releases the hormones into the blood
adrenal glands
Adrenal Glands
  • The adrenal glands are pyramid-shaped structures that sit on top of the kidneys.
  • The adrenal glands release hormones that help the body deal with stress
    • The “fight or flight” response is produced when impulses from the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal glands to release large amounts of adrenaline
pancreas
Pancreas
  • The pancreas has both exocrine and endocrine functions
  • As an exocrine gland, the pancreas releases enzymes that help digest food
  • As an endocrine gland, the pancreases releases insulin and glucagon help to keep the blood glucose (sugar) level stable
  • Insulin = decreases blood sugar [stores sugar inside other cells]
  • Glucagon = increases blood sugar [removes stored sugar from other cells]
thyroid gland
Thyroid Gland
  • Thyroid gland = uses iodine to produce hormones that increase metabolism (causing cells to become more active, use more energy, and produce more heat)
  • Thyroid gland is located at the base of the neck and wraps around the upper part of the trachea
parathyroid glands
Parathyroid Glands
  • Parathyroid hormone = increases calcium levels in the blood by:
  • promoting the release of calcium from bone
  • the reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys
  • the uptake of calcium from the digestive system.
reproductive glands
Reproductive Glands
  • The gonads—ovaries and testes—are the body’s reproductive glands.
  • The gonads serve two functions: production of gametes and secretion of sex hormones.
  • Females = ovaries produce eggs and secrete hormones called estrogens
  • Males = testes produce sperm and secrete the hormone testosterone
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