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Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes presentation outline. Soil Design Strategies • Natural vs Blended • Simple vs Complex Specifying Blended Soils • components • mix ratios vs use • specification controls Teardrop Park • horticultural strategy

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Specifying soils for complex landscapes presentation outline l.jpg

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapespresentation outline

Soil Design Strategies

• Natural vs Blended

• Simple vs Complex

Specifying Blended Soils

•components

• mix ratios vs use

• specification controls

Teardrop Park

• horticultural strategy

• specifications

Robert Pine, PE, MLA, ASLA

Pine&Swallow

ENVIRONMENTAL


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Soil Design StrategiesNatural vs Blended

Natural

“Loam” Dealer

Blended Soils

Controlled performance,

Sustainable

Limited Resource

Mix of whatever

came in that day

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


Simple vs complex landscapes l.jpg

Soil Design StrategiesNatural vs Blended

Simple vs Complex Landscapes

Tanglewood

Teardrop Park

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Specifying Blended Soils Components

Sand

Base Loam

Compost

Blended Soil

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Specifying Blended Soils Components

Natural Topsoil

Provides

• silt and clay particles

• stable organics

• cation exchange capacity

• natural soil biology

As percentage in a blend increases

• nutrient and water holding capacities ↑

• infiltration rate and aeration ↓

• resistance to compaction ↓

Note:

Good quality topsoil is

required for appropriate

gradation, organics and soil biology.

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Specifying Blended Soils Components

Uniform Coarse Sand

Provides

• structure

• macropore space

As percentage in a blend increases

• aeration ↑

• infiltration rate ↑

• resistance to compaction ↑

• water holding capacity ↓

• nutrient holding capacity ↓

Note:

Well graded sand reduces

aeration, infiltration and resistance

to compaction!

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Specifying Blended Soils Components

Mature Compost

Provides

• organic content

• micro-organisms

As percentage in a blend increases

• water holding capacity ↑

• soil biology ↑

• resistance to compaction ↑

• resistance to anaerobic conditions ↓

Note:

Immature compost creates bad soil biology and increased vulnerability to anaerobic conditions.

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Specifying Blended Soils Specification Controls

Primary Mix Design Specifications

Purpose

• define the soil blend

• control soil properties

• Estimated Mix Ratio for each soil

• Grain Size Distribution

• Coefficient of Uniformity

• Organic Content

• Horticultural Requirements (CEC, pH, nutrients, etc.)

• Compaction Range

• Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity at maximum compaction

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Specifying Blended Soils Specification Controls

Primary Process Specifications

Purpose

• Testing and confirmation of base materials: sand, loam, compost

• Testing to confirm mix ratios

• Batch production and testing prior to delivery for quality control

• Handling and Placement procedures

• Control of wet soils

  • Ensure quality control

  • Protect soil quality

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Horticultural Strategy

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

High Use Turf

  • Soil Requirements

  • • Withstand heavy use

  • • High infiltration rate

Specifications

Mix Ratio *3S : 1.5L : 1C

% passing 270 sieve11 -14%

Uniformity ratio D70/D20< 4.5

Organic content4 - 5%

Compaction86 - 88%

Hydraulic conductivity> 4 inches/hr

* S = Sand L = Base Loam C = Compost

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Passive Use Lawn

(not used at Teardrop Park)

Specifications

Mix Ratio *2S : 1.5L : 1C

% passing 270 sieve15 - 18%

Uniformity ratio D70/D20< 5.0

Organic content4 - 6%

Compaction84 - 86%

Hydraulic conductivity> 3 inches/hr

* S = Sand L = Base Loam C = Compost

  • Soil Requirements

  • • Withstand moderate use

  • • Moderate infiltration rate

  • • Reduced water requirements

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Horticultural Subsoil

  • Soil Requirements:

  • • rooting zone for trees / shrubs

  • • free draining

  • • not vulnerable to anaerobics

Specifications

Mix Ratio *2S : 1L

% passing 270 sieve14 - 18%

Uniformity ratio D70/D20< 6.0

Organic content2 - 3%

Compaction82 - 85%

Hydraulic conductivity> 2 inches/hr

* S = Sand L = Base Loam C = Compost

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Trees with understory

no ground cover

Specifications

Mix Ratio *2S : 1L : 3C

% passing 270 sieve11 - 16%

Uniformity ratio D70/D20< 6.0

Organic content9 - 11%

Compaction84 - 86%

Hydraulic conductivity> 3 inches/hr

* S = Sand L = Base Loam C = Compost

  • Soil Requirements:

  • • recreate natural forest soil profile

  • • encouraging shallow feeder roots

  • • deep rooting in horticultural subsoil

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Trees with understory

with ground cover

  • Soil Requirements:

  • • recreate natural forest soil profile

  • • suitable for ground cover plants

Specifications

Mix Ratio *2S : 1L : 2C

% passing 270 sieve11 - 16%

Uniformity ratio D70/D20< 6.0

Organic content6 - 9%

Compaction86 - 88%

Hydraulic conductivity> 3 inches/hr

* S = Sand L = Base Loam C = Compost

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Marsh Planting Soil

Specifications

Mix Ratio *1S : 2C

% passing 270 sieve8 - 12%

Uniformity ratio D70/D20< 4.5

Organic content10 - 12%

Compaction82 - 85%

Hydraulic conductivity> 4 inches/hr

Note: Medium Sand not Coarse

* S = Sand L = Base Loam C = Compost

  • Soil Requirements:

  • • saturated conditions

  • • support wetland plantings

  • • high water holding capacity

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Boulder Base Mix

  • Soil Requirements:

  • • structural support for

  • heavy boulders

  • • horticultural support for plantings

Specifications

Mix Ratio:

1 part 1.5 to 2 inch crushed stone

1 part tree soil mix

Placed beneath heavy boulders

and compacted thoroughly

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Steep slopes

  • Soil Requirements:

  • • provide long term stability

  • • protection from erosion

  • • tree horticultural support

Specifications

Mix Ratio:

2 to 4 oz fibers per cubic foot

thoroughly mixed with

planting soil

Placed and compacted to normal compaction range for specified planting medium

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


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Teardrop Park Specifications

Trees in paved areas

  • Soil Requirements:

  • • provide tree rooting volume

  • • provide support for pavement

  • • prevent settlements

Specifications

Mix Ratio *4S : 1L : 1C

% passing 270 sieve7 - 9%

Uniformity ratio D70/D20< 3

Organic content2 - 3%

Compaction92 - 94%

Hydraulic conductivity> 6 inches/hr

* S = Sand L = Base Loam C = Compost

Pine&Swallow

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapes


Specifying soils for complex landscapes recap l.jpg

Specifying Soils for Complex Landscapesrecap

Soil Design Strategies

• Natural vs Blended

• Simple vs Complex

Specifying Blended Soils

•components

• mix ratios vs use

• specification controls

Teardrop Park

• horticultural strategy

• specifications

Robert Pine, PE, ASLA

Pine&Swallow

ENVIRONMENTAL


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