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Chapter 14. The Arthropods: Blueprint for Success. Evolutionary Perspective. Metamerism modified by tagmatization Chitinous exoskeleton Paired, jointed appendages Ecdysis Ventral nervous system Coelom reduced to cavity around gonads Open circulatory system Complete digestive tract

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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

The Arthropods: Blueprint for Success


Evolutionary perspective
Evolutionary Perspective

  • Metamerism modified by tagmatization

  • Chitinous exoskeleton

  • Paired, jointed appendages

  • Ecdysis

  • Ventral nervous system

  • Coelom reduced to cavity around gonads

  • Open circulatory system

  • Complete digestive tract

  • Metamorphosis often present


Classification and relationships to other animals
Classification and Relationships to other Animals

  • Ecdysozoans

    • Cuticle, ecdysis, loss of epidermal cilia (figure 14.2)

  • Monophyletic with five subphyla (table 14.1)

    • Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda, Myriapoda, Trilobitomorpha (entirely extinct)



Table 14.1 other animals.


Metamerism and tagmatization
Metamerism and Tagmatization other animals.

  • Metamerism evident externally

    • Segmental body wall

    • Segmental appendages

  • Metamerism reduced internally

    • No septa

    • Most organs are not metameric

  • Tagmatization obvious

    • Specializations for feeding, sensory perception, locomotion, and visceral functions


Learning outcomes section 14 3
Learning Outcomes: other animals.Section 14.3

  • Describe the structure of the arthropod exoskeleton or cuticle.

  • Assess the influence the exoskeleton has had on the evolution of the arthropods.


The exoskeleton
The Exoskeleton other animals.

  • Exoskeleton or cuticle

    • External jointed skeleton

  • Functions

    • Structural support

    • Protection

    • Prevents water loss

    • Levers for muscle attachment and movement

  • Covers all body surfaces and invaginations

  • Secreted by epidermis (hypodermis)


The exoskeleton1
The Exoskeleton other animals.

  • Epicuticle (figure 14.3)

    • Lipoprotein

    • Impermeable to water

    • Barrier to microorganisms and pesticides

  • Procuticle

    • Chitin

      • polysaccharide

    • Outer procuticle hardened by sclerotization or deposition of calcium carbonate

    • Inner procuticle less hardened and flexible

      • Articular membranes at joints (figure 14.4)

  • Modifications include sensory receptors

    • Sensilla




The exoskeleton2
The Exoskeleton other animals.

  • Growth accompanied by ecdysis (figure 14.5)

    • Enzymes from hypodermal glands begin digesting old procuticle (a, b).

    • New procuticle and epicuticle secreted (c, d).

    • Old exoskeleton splits (e)

    • Calcium carbonate deposition and/or sclerotization hardens new exoskeleton (f).



The hemocoel
The Hemocoel other animals.

  • Embryonic blastocoel

  • Internal cavity for open circulatory system

    • Fluids bathe internal organs.

    • Exchange of nutrients, wastes, and sometimes gases

  • Not a hydrostatic compartment


Metamorphosis
Metamorphosis other animals.

  • Radical change in body form and physiology as an immature (larva) becomes an adult.

    • Reduces competition between adult and immature stages


Subphylum trilobitomorpha
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha other animals.

  • Dominant life form from Cambrian period (600 mya) to Carboniferous period (345 mya)

  • Substrate feeders

  • Three tagmata: head, thorax, and pygidium

  • Three longitudinal sections

  • Biramous appendages


Figure 14.6 Subphylum Trilobitomorpha ( other animals.Saukia sp).


Subphylum chelicerata
Subphylum Chelicerata other animals.

  • Spiders, mites, ticks, horseshoe crabs

  • Two tagmata

    • Prosoma

      • Eyes

      • Chelicerae

        • Often chelate

        • Usually feeding appendages

      • Pedipalps

        • Sensory, feeding, locomotion, reproduction

      • Walking legs

    • Opisthosoma

      • Digestive, reproductive, excretory, and respiratory organs


Class meristomata
Class Meristomata other animals.

Figure 14.7 A eurypterid, Euripterus remipes.

  • Subclasses

    • Eurypterida

      • Extinct giant water scorpions

        (figure 14.7)


Class meristomata1
Class Meristomata other animals.

Figure 14.8a Limulus polyphemus.

  • Subclass Xiphosura

    • Horseshoe crabs

      • Limulus (Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico)

      • Book gills

        • Gas exchange between blood and water

      • Reproduction

        • Dioecious

        • External fertilization


Figure 14.8b Ventral view of other animals.Limulus.


Class arachnida
Class Arachnida other animals.

  • Spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions

  • Arose from ancient euryptrids

  • Very early terrestrial groups

    • 280-400 mya

    • Exoskeleton was preadaptation for water conservation.


Form and function
Form and Function other animals.

  • Carnivores

    • Chelicerae to hold prey or as fangs

    • Gut

      • Foregut

        • Cuticular

        • Pumping stomach

      • Hindgut

        • Cuticular

        • Water reabsorption

      • Midgut

        • Noncuticular

        • Secretion and absorption


Form and function1
Form and Function other animals.

  • Excretion

    • Coxal glands

      • Paired sacs bathed in blood of body sinuses

      • Homologous to nephridia

      • Excretory pores at base of posterior appendages

    • Malpighian tubules

      • Blind ending diverticula of gut tract

      • Empty via digestive tract

    • Uric acid


Form and function2
Form and Function other animals.

  • Gas Exchange

    • Book lungs

      • Paired ventral invaginations of body wall

      • Gas exchange between air and blood across book lung lamellae

    • Tracheae

      • Branched, chitin-lined tubes

      • Open at spiracles along abdomen



Form and function3
Form and Function other animals.

  • Circulation

    • Open with dorsal contractile vessel

    • Pumps blood into tissue spaces of hemocoel

    • Returns to dorsal vessel via ostia

  • Nervous system

    • Ventral with fusion of ganglia


Form and function4
Form and Function other animals.

  • Senses

    • Mechanoreceptors

      • Modifications of exoskeleton

      • Sensilla respond to displacement.

    • Chemical sense

      • Pores in exoskeleton

    • Vision

      • Eyes detect movement and changes in light intensity.

Figure 14.10 An arthropod seta (a) and an eye (ocellus) (b).


Form and function5
Form and Function other animals.

  • Reproduction

    • Dioecious

    • Indirect sperm transfer

      • Male deposits spermatophores, which are transferred to the female.

    • Courtship rituals common

    • Copulation occurs in spiders via modified pedipalp of male.

  • Development

    • Direct


Order scorpionida
Order Scorpionida other animals.

  • Prosoma

    • Shieldlike carapace

  • Opisthosoma

    • Preabdomen

    • Postabdomen (“tail” with sting)

  • Courtship prior to mating

  • Oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous


Figure 14.11 (a) other animals.Hardrurus arizonensis (b) External anatomy.

(a)

(b)


Order araneae
Order Araneae other animals.

  • Spiders

  • Prosoma

    • Chelicerae with poison glands and fangs

    • Pedipalps leglike

      • Sperm transfer in males

    • 6-8 eyes

  • Opisthosoma

    • Connected to prosoma via pedicel

    • Swollen or elongate

    • Visceral functions and spinnerets




Order araneae1
Order Araneae other animals.

  • Silk

    • Protein

    • Repeating sequence of glycine and alanine

    • Beta sheet

    • Stored as gel prior to spinning

    • Chemical modification when forced through spinnerets

  • Webs, line retreats, safety lines, wrapping eggs, dispersal of young (ballooning)



Order araneae2
Order Araneae weavers.

  • Feeding

    • Insects and other arthropods

    • Hunt or capture in webs

    • Paralyze prey

      • May wrap in silk

    • Inject enzymes into prey body wall

  • Two spiders are venomous to humans.


Figure 14.15 (a) Black widow spiders ( weavers.Lactrodectus mactans) has a neurotoxic venom. (b) Brown recluse spiders (Loxosceles reclusa) have a histolytic venom.

(b)

(a)


Order araneae3
Order Araneae weavers.

  • Reproduction

    • Complex behaviors

      • Chemical, tactile, and visual signals

    • Male’s pedipalps enlarged into embolus

      • Male deposits sperm on web and collects with pedipalps.

      • Transfers sperm to female during mating

    • Female deposits eggs in silk case.

      • In webbing, a retreat, or carries with her


Order opiliones
Order Opiliones weavers.

Figure 14.16 Order Opiliones (Leiobunum sp).

  • Harvestmen or daddy longlegs

  • Prosoma broadly joins opisthosoma

  • Legs long and slender

  • Omnivores

  • External and internal digestion


Order acarina
Order Acarina weavers.

  • Mites

    • Prosoma and opisthosoma fused and covered by single carapace

    • 1mm or less

    • Free-living

      • Herbivores or scavengers

        • Many pest species

    • Ectoparasites

      • Chigger (Trombicula)

      • Follicle mite (Demodex)

Figure 14.17 Dermatophagoides farinae is common in homes and grain storage areas.


Order acarina1
Order Acarina weavers.

  • Ticks

    • Ectoparasites in all life stages

    • Up to 3cm

    • Females lay eggs after engorging with blood.

    • Important in disease transmission

      • Rocky Mountain spotted fever

      • Lyme disease


Figure 11.18 weavers.Ixodes scapularis transmits the bacteria that causes Lyme disease.


Class pycnogonida subphylum cheliceriformes
Class Pycnogonida (Subphylum Cheliceriformes?) weavers.

  • Sea spiders

  • Marine

  • Feed on cnidarian polyps

  • Dioecious

  • Molecular, developmental, and morphological characters are being used to reevaluate taxonomic status.

Figure 14.19 Class Pycnogonida


Subphylum crustacea
Subphylum Crustacea weavers.

  • Crayfish, shrimp, lobsters, crabs, copepods cladocerans and others

  • Almost all are aquatic

    • Terrestrial isopods and crabs are exceptions.

  • Two pairs of antennae

  • Biramous appendages (figure 14.20)


F weavers.igure 14.20 Crustacean body form. (a) External anatomy. (b) Biramous appendages.


Class malacostraca
Class Malacostraca weavers.

  • Crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, amphipods, isopods

  • Order Decapoda

    • Largest order

    • Shrimp, crayfish, lobsters, crabs


Class malacostraca1
Class Malacostraca weavers.

  • Crayfish external structure

    • Cephalothorax

      • Fusion of head and thorax

      • Covered dorsally and laterally by carapace

      • Sensory, feeding, locomotion

    • Abdomen

      • Muscular “tail” in crayfish

      • Locomotor and visceral functions in others

    • Paired appendages

      • Serially homologous (derived from a common ancestral pattern)




Class malacostraca2
Class Malacostraca weavers.

  • Crayfish internal structure

    • Digestive system

      • Complete with foregut, midgut, and hindgut

    • Respiratory system

      • Gills attach at base of cephalothoracic appendages.

      • Lie within gill chamber between carapace and lateral body wall

      • Second maxilla circulates water.

    • Circulation

      • Open

      • Dorsal heart and major arteries

      • Blood enters hemocoel, and gills before returning to pericardial sinus around heart.



Class malacostraca3
Class Malacostraca weavers.

  • Ventral nervous system

    • Cephalization and centralization

    • Supraesophageal and subesophageal ganglia process sensory information and control head appendages.

    • Segmental ganglia

  • Sensory structures

    • Antennae

    • Compound eyes

    • Statocysts

    • Chemoreceptors

    • Proprioceptors

    • Tactile setae


Class malacostraca4
Class Malacostraca weavers.

  • Endocrine system

    • Ecdysis, sex determination, color change

      • X-organs

        • Neurosecretory tissues in eyestalks

        • Molt-inhibiting hormone

          • Target Y-organ

      • Y-organs

        • Base of maxillae

        • Releases ecdysone when molt inhibiting hormone is not present and ecdysis occurs

    • Androgenic glands (males)

      • Promotes development of testes and male characteristics


Class malacostraca5
Class Malacostraca weavers.

  • Excretion

    • Antennal (green) glands in crayfish

    • Maxillary glands in others

    • Homologous to coxal glands of arachnids

  • Reproduction

    • Dioecious

    • Mating after female molts

      • Fertilized eggs attach to female’s pleopods

      • Others have planktonic larvae


Figure 14.25 weavers.

(a) Nauplius larva of a barnacle. (b) Zoea larvae of a crab.

(a)

(b)


Order isopoda
Order Isopoda weavers.

  • “Pillbugs”

  • Aquatic and terrestrial

  • Dorsoventrally flattened

Figure 14.26a Order Isopoda.


Order amphipoda
Order Amphipoda weavers.

  • Laterally compressed

  • Crawl or swim on sides

  • Beach-hoppers modified for jumping

Figure 14.26b Order Amphipoda.


Class branchiopoda
Class Branchiopoda weavers.

  • Fairy shrimp

    • Temporary ponds

  • Brine shrimp

    • Great Salt Lake

  • Cladocera

    • Freshwater water fleas

    • Large carapace

    • Parthenogenesis common

  • Flattened, leaflike appendages

Figure 14.27 Order Cladocera.


Class maxillopoda
Class Maxillopoda weavers.

Figure 14.1 Subclass Copepoda.

  • Subclass Copepoda

    • Most abundant crustaceans

    • Important in marine and freshwater food webs

    • First antennae modified for swimming


Class maxillopoda1
Class Maxillopoda weavers.

  • Subclass Thecostracea, Infraclass Cirripedia

    • Barnacles

    • Marine

    • Monoecious

      • Nauplius and cypris larvae

      • Cypris larva settles and metamorphoses into sessile adult.

    • Some parasites


Figure 14.28 Class Maxillopoda, Infraclass Cirripedia. weavers.

(a) Internal structure of an acorn barnacle. (b) A stalked barnacle (Lepas).


Further phylogenetic considerations
Further Phylogenetic Considerations weavers.

  • Diverse body forms and lifestyles of Arthropoda arose from single ancestor.

  • Crustaceans very successful in aquatic habitats

  • Chelicerata

    • First terrestrial arthropods

    • Account for evolution of many water conserving features of the phylum

      • Exoskeletal, excretory, and respiratory adaptations


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