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Development and Implementation of an Invasive Aquatic Plant Management Program at Indian Brook Reservoir Essex, Vermont Marc Bellaud VP/Aquatic Biologist. Recent History at Indian Brook Reservoir. Eurasian watermilfoil identified in 1999

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Development and Implementation of an Invasive Aquatic Plant Management Program at Indian Brook ReservoirEssex, VermontMarc BellaudVP/Aquatic Biologist

recent history at indian brook reservoir
Recent History at Indian Brook Reservoir
  • Eurasian watermilfoil identified in 1999
  • Comprehensive survey performed in 2001 and 5-year IMP developed
  • Permit filed in winter 2001/2002 for Sonar (fluridone) herbicide treatment
  • Milfoil population naturally crashed
  • Permit application withdrawn
  • Milfoil has now recovered to nuisance densities
2001 plant distribution
2001 Plant Distribution
  • EWM growth pattern changed in 2004 and infestation rapidly expanded
  • Total lake area = 50 acres
  • Milfoil cover estimated in 22 acres
  • Possible milfoil expansion to 30 acres or 60% of lake based on bathymetry
  • Milfoil disappeared?
  • Elodea was dominant native plant in 2001 - was not observed in 2011
2011 survey findings
2011 Survey Findings
  • Surveyed same points
  • Used GPS technology
  • Milfoil found at 36% of sample locations in 2011 (50% in 2001)
  • 12 species in 2011 (10 species in 2001)
  • 6 species were found during both surveys
current management recommendations
Current management recommendations
  • Agree on Management Objectives - Define Control
    • Control milfoil
    • Prevent introduction/establishment of other invasives
    • Preserve diverse plant assemblage for habitat
    • Maintain water quality
    • Improve recreational access
  • Initiate new 5-year IMP
  • Recommended herbicide: Renovate (triclopyr)
  • Why the switch in herbicides: from Sonar (fluridone) to Renovate (triclopyr)?
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Integrated Management Program

  • 5-Year program integrating chemical treatment with non-chemical controls
  • The Town must commit to continuing with non-chemical controls as part of this integrated milfoil management program. Techniques that should be considered:
  • Suction harvesting (DASH)
  • SCUBA diver hand-pulling (paid)
  • Snorkel hand-pulling (volunteer)
  • Volunteer monitoring
  • Boat launch inspections
  • Education
why renovate herbicide
Why Renovate herbicide?

SONAR (fluridone)

  • In 2001 only Sonar (fluridone) had been permitted for use in Vermont and >40% of lake supported milfoil
  • Whole-lake treatment would be required
  • In 2011 less than 20% of lake supported dense milfoil growth

RENOVATE (triclopyr)

  • Renovate has been the primary herbicide used for milfoil control in VT since 2006
  • Provides highly selective control of milfoil
  • Effective for partial-lake or spot treatments
  • Lower cost
jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
  • VTDEC can issue a permit for pesticide use when the following five findings are made:

1) There is no reasonable non-chemical alternative available;

2) There is acceptable risk to the non-target environment;

3) There is negligible risk to public health;

4) A long-range management plan has been developed which incorporates a schedule of pesticide minimization

5) There is a public benefit to be achieved from the application of the pesticide, or in the case of a pond located entirely on a landowner’s property, no undue adverse effect upon the public good.

renovate concentration exposure time

Untreated 1 WAT 4 WAT

Renovate Concentration Exposure Time

Source: US Army Engineers – ERDC

Control Predictions

A: 0 - 70 % (regrowth likely)

B: 70 - 85 % (regrowth potential subject to site conditions)

C: >85 % (limited regrowth potential)

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Two formulations available

Renovate 3

Renovate OTF

cet relationship
CET Relationship
  • Renovate OTF alters the classical concentration-exposure time relationship
    • Increases the exposure component
    • Decreases the concentration component

>85% Control of EWM achieved:

ConcentrationExposure (hr)

0.25 ppm 72 hr

0.5 ppm 48 hr

1 ppm 36 hr

1.5 ppm 24 hr

2 to 2.5 ppm 18 hr

Renovate OTF

Renovate 3

renovate otf treatment recommendations
Renovate OTF treatment recommendations
  • Target treatment of all dense beds which is estimated at 16 acres
  • Dose 2.0 to 2.5 ppm in bottom 4 feet
  • Timing – mid June
  • Water use restrictions:
    • No swimming for 2 days
    • Drinking resumes <75 ppb (~ 1 week)
    • Irrigation varies
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