Download

Lecture 3 - Mineralogy






Advertisement
/ 24 []
Download Presentation
Comments
arty
From:
|  
(1257) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 66 | Added:
Rate Presentation: 0 0
Description:
Lecture 3 - Mineralogy. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/gg101/index.html. Atoms build . Earth’s Crust. Molecules build. Rocks build. Minerals build. Bingham Copper Mine – copper, silver, gold, molybdenum. What is a Mineral?. A mineral is a naturally occurring , inorganic solid
Lecture 3 - Mineralogy

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




Slide 1

Lecture 3 - Mineralogy

http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/gg101/index.html

Slide 2

Atoms build

Earth’s

Crust

Molecules build

Rocks build

Minerals build

Slide 4

Bingham Copper Mine – copper, silver, gold, molybdenum

Slide 5

What is a Mineral?

A mineral is a naturally

occurring, inorganicsolid

with an orderly internal

arrangement of atoms

(called crystalline structure)

and a definite, but sometimes

variable, chemical composition

Page: 28[FCS1]Source?

Page: 28[FCS2]According to Gloss of Geol, “used in mfr of glass, enamel, HF acid; steel not mentioned. ???

Slide 6

Hawaii’s most common mineral – volcanic Olivine

Hawaii’s second most common

mineral – marine Calcite

Slide 7

How are minerals built?

Slide 8

Review the

structure of

an atom

Slide 9

Structure of the Atom -

8

If we drew a hydrogen atom to scale, making the nucleus

the diameter of a pencil, the electron would orbit about

0.5 km from the nucleus. The whole atom would be the size

of a baseball stadium…with so much empty space, how can

our world feel so solid?

Octet Rule…filled outer orbital

Atomic Number…number of protons

Mass Number…number of protons and neutrons

Slide 10

Isotopes of an atom have variable

number of neutrons (mass number)

Most atoms exist in a charged

state due to the need to have

a filled outer shell - Ions

Slide 11

How are minerals built?

Slide 12

Octet Rule

Slide 13

Chlorine = 7 electrons in outer shell

Sodium = 1 electron in outer shell

NaCl

7 e- in outer shell

1 e- in outer

shell

Ionic Bonding

Slide 14

H20

Polar molecule

Oxygen = 6 electrons in outer shell

Hydrogen = 1 electron in outer shell

Covalent Bonding

Slide 15

46% oxygen (O2-)

28% silicon (Si4+)

8% aluminum (Al3+)

6% iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+)

4% magnesium (Mg2+)

2.4% calcium (Ca2+)

2.3% potassium (K1+)

2.1% sodium (Na1+)

These elements in a magma

chamber bond and form

minerals as the magma loses heat

Slide 16

Crystallization

Slow cooling allows fewer (larger)

crystals = coarse texture to rock

Rapid cooling leads to many small

crystals = smooth texture to rock

Slide 17

Most abundant elements? – silicon and oxygen

Silicon has 4 electrons in outer shell

= needs 4 more.

Oxygen has 6 electrons in outer shell

= needs 2 more.

(SiO4)4-

Oxygen still needs 1 more electron each

Slide 18

Silica tetrahedrons will form

minerals with crystalline structure

consisting of unlinked tetrahedra,

chains, double chains, and sheets.

Slide 19

Single tetrahedron

(SiO4)4-

Single chain

(SiO3)2-

Double chain

(Si4O11)6-

Silicate sheet

(Si2O5)2-

Three-dimensional

framework

Chains of silicates

form because Oxygen bonds with Silicon a second time

(Si3O8)4-

Slide 20

Silicon tetrahedrons form chains

(SiO3)2-

Metallic cations fit inside the chains

aluminum (Al3+)

iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+)

magnesium (Mg2+)

calcium (Ca2+)

potassium (K1+)

sodium (Na1+)

Slide 21

Cations move into spaces in

silicate structures, but

they will only form compounds

that have no charge – neutral

(positive charges must

equal negative charges)

Pairs of cations that

substitute for each

other

Slide 22

Must result in a

neutral compound

Silicon tetrahedrons form chains

(SiO3)2-

One cation may

push another out of the

latticework

Single substitution

Fe

Mg

Substitution

Metallic cations fit inside the chains

aluminum (Al3+)

iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+)

magnesium (Mg2+)

calcium (Ca2+)

potassium (K1+)

sodium (Na1+)

Na

Ca

Double substitution

Si

Al

Slide 23

Charge Size (nm)

46% oxygen (O2-) 0.132

2.3% potassium (K1+) 0.133

6% iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+) 0.064

4% magnesium (Mg2+) 0.066

28% silicon (Si4+) 0.042

8% aluminum (Al3+) 0.050

2.4% calcium (Ca2+) 0.099

2.1% sodium (Na1+) 0.097

Atoms in

a pair push

each other

out of

position

Cation Substitution: Mineral must be neutral

Na/Ca, Al/Si and Fe/Mg

Olivine: single tetrahedron (SiO4)4-

[Fe22+(SiO4)4-] or [Mg22+(SiO4)4-]

+4 +4 –8=0 or +4 +4 –8=0

Single

Substitution

Fe Mg

Feldspar: 3-D framework (Si3O8)4-

[Na1+Al3+Si34+O82-]or [Ca2+Al23+Si24+O82-]

+1 +3 +12 –16=0 or +2 +6 +8 –16=0

Double Na Ca

Substitution Al Si

Slide 24

As the Si and O build crystalline structures and the metallic cations play single and double substitution, the entire magma chamber grows into a solid mass of minerals….


Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro