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Lecture 3 - Mineralogy

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Lecture 3 - Mineralogy. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/gg101/index.html. Atoms build . Earth’s Crust. Molecules build. Rocks build. Minerals build. Bingham Copper Mine – copper, silver, gold, molybdenum. What is a Mineral?. A mineral is a naturally occurring , inorganic solid

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slide1

Lecture 3 - Mineralogy

http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/coasts/gg101/index.html

slide2

Atoms build

Earth’s

Crust

Molecules build

Rocks build

Minerals build

slide5

What is a Mineral?

A mineral is a naturally

occurring, inorganicsolid

with an orderly internal

arrangement of atoms

(called crystalline structure)

and a definite, but sometimes

variable, chemical composition

Page: 28[FCS1]Source?

Page: 28[FCS2]According to Gloss of Geol, “used in mfr of glass, enamel, HF acid; steel not mentioned. ???

slide6

Hawaii’s most common mineral – volcanic Olivine

Hawaii’s second most common

mineral – marine Calcite

slide8

Review the

structure of

an atom

slide9

Structure of the Atom -

8

If we drew a hydrogen atom to scale, making the nucleus

the diameter of a pencil, the electron would orbit about

0.5 km from the nucleus. The whole atom would be the size

of a baseball stadium…with so much empty space, how can

our world feel so solid?

Octet Rule…filled outer orbital

Atomic Number…number of protons

Mass Number…number of protons and neutrons

slide10

Isotopes of an atom have variable

number of neutrons (mass number)

Most atoms exist in a charged

state due to the need to have

a filled outer shell - Ions

slide13

Chlorine = 7 electrons in outer shell

Sodium = 1 electron in outer shell

NaCl

7 e- in outer shell

1 e- in outer

shell

Ionic Bonding

slide14

H20

Polar molecule

Oxygen = 6 electrons in outer shell

Hydrogen = 1 electron in outer shell

Covalent Bonding

slide15

46% oxygen (O2-)

28% silicon (Si4+)

8% aluminum (Al3+)

6% iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+)

4% magnesium (Mg2+)

2.4% calcium (Ca2+)

2.3% potassium (K1+)

2.1% sodium (Na1+)

These elements in a magma

chamber bond and form

minerals as the magma loses heat

slide16

Crystallization

Slow cooling allows fewer (larger)

crystals = coarse texture to rock

Rapid cooling leads to many small

crystals = smooth texture to rock

slide17

Most abundant elements? – silicon and oxygen

Silicon has 4 electrons in outer shell

= needs 4 more.

Oxygen has 6 electrons in outer shell

= needs 2 more.

(SiO4)4-

Oxygen still needs 1 more electron each

slide18

Silica tetrahedrons will form

minerals with crystalline structure

consisting of unlinked tetrahedra,

chains, double chains, and sheets.

slide19

Single tetrahedron

(SiO4)4-

Single chain

(SiO3)2-

Double chain

(Si4O11)6-

Silicate sheet

(Si2O5)2-

Three-dimensional

framework

Chains of silicates

form because Oxygen bonds with Silicon a second time

(Si3O8)4-

slide20

Silicon tetrahedrons form chains

(SiO3)2-

Metallic cations fit inside the chains

aluminum (Al3+)

iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+)

magnesium (Mg2+)

calcium (Ca2+)

potassium (K1+)

sodium (Na1+)

slide21

Cations move into spaces in

silicate structures, but

they will only form compounds

that have no charge – neutral

(positive charges must

equal negative charges)

Pairs of cations that

substitute for each

other

slide22

Must result in a

neutral compound

Silicon tetrahedrons form chains

(SiO3)2-

One cation may

push another out of the

latticework

Single substitution

Fe

Mg

Substitution

Metallic cations fit inside the chains

aluminum (Al3+)

iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+)

magnesium (Mg2+)

calcium (Ca2+)

potassium (K1+)

sodium (Na1+)

Na

Ca

Double substitution

Si

Al

slide23

Charge Size (nm)

46% oxygen (O2-) 0.132

2.3% potassium (K1+) 0.133

6% iron (Fe2+ or Fe3+) 0.064

4% magnesium (Mg2+) 0.066

28% silicon (Si4+) 0.042

8% aluminum (Al3+) 0.050

2.4% calcium (Ca2+) 0.099

2.1% sodium (Na1+) 0.097

Atoms in

a pair push

each other

out of

position

Cation Substitution: Mineral must be neutral

Na/Ca, Al/Si and Fe/Mg

Olivine: single tetrahedron (SiO4)4-

[Fe22+(SiO4)4-] or [Mg22+(SiO4)4-]

+4 +4 –8=0 or +4 +4 –8=0

Single

Substitution

Fe Mg

Feldspar: 3-D framework (Si3O8)4-

[Na1+Al3+Si34+O82-]or [Ca2+Al23+Si24+O82-]

+1 +3 +12 –16=0 or +2 +6 +8 –16=0

Double Na Ca

Substitution Al Si

slide24

As the Si and O build crystalline structures and the metallic cations play single and double substitution, the entire magma chamber grows into a solid mass of minerals….

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