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Unintended Pesticide Impacts. Drinking water, soil, aquatic organisms, birds, bees, fish, beneficial insects, biodiversity. Eagle populations declined in 1960s. DDT reduced predatory bird populations by weakening their egg shells. Fungicides Copper hydroxide (Cuproflo, Cuprocsat)

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unintended pesticide impacts

Unintended Pesticide Impacts

Drinking water, soil, aquatic organisms, birds, bees, fish, beneficial insects, biodiversity

agvantage requested epa registered fungicides
Fungicides

Copper hydroxide (Cuproflo, Cuprocsat)

Copper sulfate (Bordeaux mixture)

Cymoxanil (Iteral)

Difenoconazole (Dividend, Score)

Kresoxim-methyl (Stroby)

Mancozeb (Mancozeb)

Metalaxyl (Ridomil)

Metiram (Polyram)

Mono- & Di-Potassium salts of phosphorous acid (Topaz (Fosphite) 53% EC)

Triadimefon (Bayleton)

Trifloxystrobin (Zato)

AgVANTAGE-Requested & EPA-Registered Fungicides
agvantage requested epa registered insecticides
Insecticides

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban)*

Cypermethrin (Arrivo)*

Deltamethrin (Decis)*

Diazinon (Basudin)

Dimethoate (Bi-58)

Hexythiazox (Nissoran)

Imidacloprid (Konfidor, Prestige)

Lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate)*

Propargite (Omite)

Pyridaben (Sunmite)

Thiamethoxam (Actara)

Thiacloprid (Callipso)

*restricted-use products

AgVANTAGE-Requested & EPA-Registered Insecticides
agvantage requested epa approved herbicides nematicide
Herbicides

Bentazon (Basagran)

Fluazifop-p-butyl (Fusilad Forte)

Glyphosate (Kline, Roundup, Uragan)

Prometryn (Gezagard)

Metribuzin (Senkor)

Nematicide

Dazomet (Basaid)

AgVANTAGE-Requested & EPA-Approved Herbicides & Nematicide
some pesticides toxic chemicals are known to go through the soil to drinking water wells epa
2,4-D2,4,5-TP (Silvex)AcrylamideAlachlorAtrazine BenzoapyreneCarbofuranChlordaneDalaponDi 2-ethylhexyl adipateDi 2-ethylhexyl phthalate

DibromochloropropaneDinosebDioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)DiquatEndothall

EndrinEpichlorohydrinEthylene dibromideGlyphosateHeptachlorHeptachlor epoxide

Hexachlorobenzene HexachlorocyclopentadieneLindaneMethoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate]PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram SimazineToxaphene 

Some pesticides & toxic chemicals are known to go through the soil to drinking water wells (EPA)
ground and surface water contamination
Ground and surface water contamination
  • In the USA, 10% of community wells and 4% of rural domestic wells have detectable levels of at least one of the 127 pesticides tested in a national survey (EPA 1990)
agvantage requested pesticides that may enter drinking water wells
Fungicides

Kresoxim-methyl (Stroby)

Metalaxyl (Ridomil)

Triadimefon (Bayleton)

Herbicides

Glyphosate (Kline, Roundup, Uragan)

Prometryn (Gezagard)

Metribuzin (Senkor)

Insecticides

Diazinon (Basudin)

Dimethoate (Bi-58)

Imidacloprid (Konfidor, Prestige)

Nematicide

Dazomet (Basaid)

AgVANTAGE-requested pesticides that may enter drinking water wells
honeybee
Honeybee
  • 20% of all honeybee colonies are adversely affected by pesticides
  • 5% of U.S. honeybee colonies are killed during winter because of pesticide residue exposure in stored pollen

(Mayer 1990)

agvantage requested pesticides toxic to bees
Fungicides

Copper sulfate (Bordeaux mixture)

Mancozeb (Mancozeb)

Insecticides

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban)

Cypermethrin (Arrivo)

Deltamethrin (Decis)

Diazinon (Basudin)

Lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate)

AgVANTAGE-requested pesticides toxic to bees
to avoid bee kills
To avoid bee kills

Try to select a pesticide & dosage that will kill

the pest & not kill bees

  • If this is NOT possible:
  • Use the pesticide in the formulation least harmful to bees
  • Apply the pesticide early morning or early evening when bees are not visiting the crop
  • Warn local beekeepers before applying the pesticide
  • Move bee colonies away from sites where toxic pesticides are used
agvantage requested pesticides toxic to fish
Fungicides

Copper sulfate (Bordeaux mixture)

Mancozeb (Mancozeb)

Herbicides

Fluazifop-p-butyl (Fusilad Forte)

Prometryn (Gezagard)

Insecticides

Chlorpyrifos (Dursban)*

Cypermethrin (Arrivo)*

Deltamethrin (Decis)*

Diazinon (Basudin) Hexythiazox (Nissoran)

Lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate)*

Propargite (Omite)

Pyridaben (Sunmite)

*very highly toxic to fish

AgVANTAGE-requested pesticides toxic to fish
other environmental issues with pesticide use
Other environmental issues with pesticide use
  • Pesticides kill beneficial insects (those that eat crop pests)
  • Some pests become resistant to pesticides, requiring the use of much more pesticide to kill them, or change to another pesticide
  • Pesticides can poison cows, sheep, pigs
  • Toxicity to other plants & crops
environmental and economic costs of pesticide use in the usa
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COSTS OF PESTICIDE USE IN THE USA

Impact Costs Millions of US Dollars/year__________________________________________________________

  • Public health impacts 1,140
  • Domestic animals deaths and contaminations 30
  • Loss of natural enemies that eat pests 520
  • Cost of pesticide resistance 1,500
  • Honeybee and pollination losses 334
  • Crop losses 1,391
  • Fishery losses 100
  • Bird losses 2,160
  • Groundwater contamination 2,000
  • Government regulations to prevent damage 470

TOTAL 9,645

Source: Pimentel

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